Worldwide Terrorism & Crime Against Humanity Index
Congressional Report on Pearl Harbor
From: U.S. Congressional Joint Committee on Pearl Harbor Attack Hearings: Pt. 24, Proceedings of the Roberts Commission, pp. 1570-1611.
1570 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
Cincpac File No
UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET
USS PENNSYLVANIA, Flagship
PEARL HARBOR, T. H., December 21, 1941.
From: Rear Admiral H. E. Kimmel, U. S. Navy.
To: The Secretary of the Navy.
Via: The Chief of Naval Operations.
Subject: Report of action of T December 1941.
(A) Partial narrative of events occurring during Japanese Air Raid on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941.
(B) Cincpac secret letter L11-1(1) (50) serial 02019 of-December 12, 1941 OpNav. Subject: Damage to Ships Pacific Fleet Resulting From Japanese Attack 7 December 1941.
(C) Supplementary partial report of damage to ships.
(D) Disposition of own forces, sortie from harbor, and conduct of the search.
1. The first indication of the attack on Pearl Harbor on the morning of 7 December 1941 was a telephone report received by the Staff Duty Officer from the Fourteenth Naval District Duty Officer at about 0720 (LCT). It reported an attack by the WARD on a hostile submarine off the entrance of Pearl Harbor. Twenty minutes thereafter another telephone report from Operations Officer Patrol Wing TWO, was received that a patrol plane had sunk a hostile submarine south of the entrance buoy. This was followed by an additional telephone report from the Fourteenth Naval District stating the WARD was towing a sampan into Honolulu. At about 0752 a telephone report was received from the Navy Yard Signal Tower as follows: "Enemy Air Raid Not Drill." Almost simultaneously Japanese planes were observed over the Fleet. Dive bombers were bombing the adjacent air fields, accompanied by torpedo plane attacks on the ships in the harbor. From then on there was almost continuous enemy air activity of some kind over the harbor, but there seemed to be separate periods of intense activity as if different new waves were arriving prior to departure of last one. The first of these periods lasted from about 0755 to around 0820. Another period was from about 0900 to 0930 and consisted mainly of dive bombers, a third wave, by high altitude bombers, interspersed with dive bombing and strafing came over about 0930. Meanwhile enemy submarines were reported in Pearl Harbor. One submarine was rammed and sunk by the MONAGHAN. All enemy planes withdrew about 1000.
2. It appears that the raid on OAHU was excellently planned and executed in that every air field on the island was bombed and strafed in an attempt to demobilize all planes.
3. Before the attacks were completed, Commander Patrol Wing TWO, in accordance with standard orders, established such search as he was able to do with the planes remaining.
4. It is estimated from the radio calls exchanged, bearings received, and examination of enemy crashed planes, that 4 to 6 Japanese carriers participated in the raid. Enclosure (D), forwarded herewith, represents the disposition of our Task Forces in effect for 7 December, as well as the action taken to locate and destroy the enemy forces.
5. All reports received from commands afloat are unanimous in their praise for the magnificent behavior of our personnel. Specific eases deserving commendation and reward will be reported in separate correspondence.
6. Partial report of damage, as submitted in enclosure (B) is supplemented herewith by enclosure (C).
7. Revised reports of casualties to personnel are being submitted as frequently as sufficient accurate data are available. Additional information concerning the results of the action on 7 December will be forwarded as soon as the remaining missing narratives have been received.
H. E. KIMMEL.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1571
UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET
USS PENNSYLVANIA, Flagship
Cincpac File No.
The attached report (enclosure (A)) is compiled from the narrative reports received from each ship listed in the second column, in addition to the incoming and outgoing messages of the Commander-in-Chief's file and a few intelligence reports.
This is only a partial report as individual ship's reports are still being received. The report contains a few inaccuracies which when time permits, will be checked and verified and a corrected report submitted to the Department.
NARRATIVE OF EVENTS OCCURRING DURING JAPANESE AIR RAID ON DECEMBER 7, 194l
On the morning 7 Dec. Task Force 8 (ENTERPRISE, NORTHAMPTON, SALT LAKE CITY, CHESTER, (Crudiv 5), DUNLAP, ELIOT, FANNING, BENHAM, GRIDLEY, MAURY, BALCH, (Desron 6) were returning to Pearl Harbor after completing mission vicinity Wake Island. From position approximately 215 miles West of Pearl routing scouting flight launched. Flight had orders to search ahead sector through 045-135° for distance 150 miles. Thence planes to proceed to Pearl. Three planes also launched to establish inner air patrol.
ANTARES Arrived off Pearl Harbor, from Canton and Palmyra with 500 tons steel barge in tow. Sighted suspicious object 1500 yds. on stbd. quarter. Appeared to be small submarine but could not positively identify it. Accordingly notified inshore patrol ship, WARD to investigate it.
ANTARES Observed Navy Patrol plane circle and drop 2 smoke pots near object.
ANTARES Observed WARD commence firing for 2 minutes. Patrol plane appeared to drop bombs or depth charged object which disappeared.
VP Squadron 24 Had four of the six PBY5 planes depart Pearl Harbor for scheduled training exercise in operating area C-5. One of the remaining two planes was out of commission for structural changes; the other in standby status for ready duty.
Plane 14P-1 sank enemy sub. 1 mile off P. H. Entrance. FORCES UNDER COMMAND OF PATWING TWO (COMTASKFOR 9) disposed as follows:
Patron 21 Midway: Patron 11, 12, 14, Kaneohoe; Patron 21, 22, 23, 24 Pearl Harbor. WRIGHT enroute from P. H. For Midway. Condition of readiness B-5. (50% aircraft on 4 hours notice). Specific duty assignments required 6 planes from Patron 14, 24, and 12 to be ready for flight on 30 minutes notice. Total number of planes ready for flight or in the air in 4 hours or less: 72. At time first bomb dropped 14 patrol aircraft were in the air (7 on search from Midway), 58 ready for flight in 4 hours or less. Nine undergoing repairs.
PATRON 21 Patwing 2 staff duty officer received and decoded message 14P-1 sank enemy submarine one mile off Pearl Harbor.
PATRON 21 Staff duty officer C-C informed by CPW2 of patrol plane sinking report. Patwing 2 proceeded to draft a search plan.
KEOSANQUA Began to receive tow from ANTARES.
HELM Underway from berth X-7 for deperming buoys at West Loch. All hands at special sea detail stations. Both boats manned and in the water with instructions to follow the ship to West Loch. All magnetic compasses and chronometers had been left in the BLUE preparatory to deperming.
Local hostilities commenced with air raid on Pearl. Received message from plane #7 of VP 14 to CTF 3 that plane had sunk one enemy submarine one mile off Pearl Harbor entrance.
AVOCET Moored at Berth F-1A, NAS Dock, Pearl Harbor. Bomb explosion and planes heard and sighted attacking Ford Island hangars.
TUCKER. Nested alongside WHITNEY. 5" gun #3 could not be fired All other guns and .50 cal. machine guns fired at attacking planes during all attacks. No loss of personnel or material. It is believed this vessel shot down three or four enemy planes.
PATRON 11 Two planes in hangar 4 planes at south end of hangar 6 planes on ramp. As soon as raid started three rifles were manned immediately. Two machine guns manned in a plane being removed from the hangar. Machine gun position in plane abandoned and guns moved to a safer position. Set up 2 machine gun nests near south end of hangar. Damage received: 7 planes burned; one wrecked; and four damaged but can be repaired. All hangar, office equipment, and stores destroyed.
PATRON 12 Two planes moored in Kaneohe Bay, two in hangar and 8 on parking apron. Upon being attacked manned machine guns in planes, mounted machine guns in pits and used rifles. Observed second wave of horizontal bombers did not release bombs. Own losses 8 PBY-5's planes completely destroyed, two severely damaged, two moderately damaged, all hangar, office equipment and stores destroyed
TRACY Moored port side to Berth 16, Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor, undergoing overhaul. PREBLE and CUMMINGS moored to starboard in that order. Ship totally disabled with main auxiliary machinery boilers and gun batteries dismantled.
TAUTOG Observed enemy three plane formation of dive bombers over Aiea fleet landing on southwest course. Enemy character not discovered until bombs were dropped.
CALIFORNIA Sounded general quarters and set condition Zed. Lieutenant Commander M. N. Little, First Lieutenant was S. O. P. on board and made preparations for getting underway.
CASSIN'S Commanding Officer observed about 100 feet away from starboard side of dry dock #1 at altitude of 100 feet and airplane with large red disks on bottom of wings. Sounded general quarters and made attempts to locate ammunition: part of 5" guns under overhaul. .50 calibre machine guns were unlimbered.
PATRON 21 Drafting of CPW2 search plan completed.
OKLAHOMA (0750 or 0753) struck by 3 torpedoes on port side frames 25, 35-40 and 1l5. Ship heeled to port 45 meanwhile A. A. Batteries manned and G. Q. executed. Rapid heeling of ship and oil and water on decks rendered service to guns ineffective.
CURTIS Moored in berth X-22, condition X-RAY. Number 3 boiler steaming. Ship at G. Q. Ship strafed by fighter planes. Observed bomb hit on VP hangar at NAS. UTAH, RALEIGH and RICHMOND attacked by torpedoes.
PYRO Secured along West Loch dock, stbd. side to. Heard noise of low-flying aircraft and explosion in Navy Yard area. Observed two low wing monoplanes about 100 feet above water head for PYRO's port beam. Planes zoomed clear of ship and was observed to be Japanese. Sounded General Quarters and prepared to get underway.
AVOCET Sounded General Quarters and opened fire with 3" A. A. Battery. Hit Japanese plane which had just turned away after torpedoing CALIFORNIA. Plane burst into flames and crashed near Naval Hospital. Fired 144 rounds 3"/50 cal. And 1750 rounds .30 cal.
PRUITT Reports 10 planes flying low, 200 feet, bombed Ford Island and blew up hangar.
TERN Notified of attack and made preparation for getting underway.
TRACY Observed BBs attacked from astern by about 10 dive bombers. Torpedo planes at about 100 feet approached from Easterly direction attacking BBs. O. O. D. saw dive bombers attack BBs (10 planes and Ford Is. from North). Attack followed by horizontal and dive bombers on same objective plus ships in dry dock. 1 dive bomber passed close enough to observe that it was a single engine by-plane probably type 94.
GAMBLE Heard explosions on Ford Island.
BAGLEY Moored Navy Yard Pearl Harbor, berth B-22, repairs to starboard bilge keel. Sighted dive bombers in action over Hickam Field. They were believed at that time to be Army bombers. Shortly after this time enemy plane approached from the direction of Merry Point at about 30-40 feet altitude and dropped torpedo on OKLAHOMA and retired. Opened up with forward machine guns on attacking plane. Machine gun fire bagged 5th plane, it swerved and torpedo dropped and exploded in bank 30 feet ahead of BAGLEY. Plane finally downed in channel. Concluded machine gunning enemy planes. 3 planes believed to have been shot down by BAGLEY.
BOBOLINK Observed about 12 dive bombers centering their attack south hangars of Ford Island.
BREESE Moored in berth D-3. Middle Loch, in nest with division order of ships from starboard USS RAMSAY, BREESE, MONTGOMERY, and GAMBLE.
Observed bombing of old hangar on Ford Island. Sounded General Quarters. Set Condition "A", and made preparations for getting underway. Sent boats to landing to pick up men.
CACHALOT Moored at Berth # 1, Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor undergoing scheduled overhaul.
CASTOR Sounded general quarters. Ship berthed at Merry Point.
CONYNGHAM Heading north moored starboard side to WHITNEY at berth X-8. REID, TUCKER, CASE, and SELFRIDGE outboard. Ship undergoing routine tender overhaul, receiving power from tender. Noted large fire on Ford Island and observed horizontal and dive bombing planes attacking. Sounded General Quarters.
DEWEY Observed UTAH to be torpedoed and to list rapidly. DEWEY at nest, DesDiv ONE, with PHELPS alongside port side DOBBIN at X-2 under overhaul.
DOLPHIN Moored portside to Pier 4, Submarine Base, Pearl Harbor. Japanese aircraft delivered dive bomb and torpedo attack on Pearl Harbor. Sounded General Quarters.
HELM Turned into West Loch channel and headed up toward deperming buoys.
HENLEY Through error in gangway watch in calling crew to quarters for muster at 0755, General Alarm was sounded instead of gas alarm as customary. Observed first torpedo plane attack on UTAH. Crew proceeded to Battle Stations while General Alarm sounded the second time. Set material condition AFFIRM. Made preparations for getting underway. Opened file on light bomber. Altitude about 17,000 feet apparently steady on Northerly course; approaching from seaward and passing over Ford Island.
HONOLULU Moored port side to berth B21 Navy Yard Pearl with USS ST. LOUIS alongside stbd. side. Planes were seen diving on HICKAM FIELD. At the same time a wave of torpedo planes were seen approaching over fleet landing. Sounded general quarters and passed word "Enemy Air Raid". Ship prepared to get underway. A. A. batteries came into action gun by gun as they were manned. 50 caliber and 30 caliber M. G.'s fired on enemy torpedo planes attacking the BB's. From this time until raid ended 30 caliber, 50 caliber and 5"/25 A. A. guns fired at every available target. Service ammunition expended 2,800 rounds of 30 caliber, 4,500 of 50 caliber, 250 rounds of 5"/25 caliber.
12 two-seat low wing monoplanes flying low from Southeast dropped one torpedo at each battleship. Saw two planes destroyed.
18 low wing dive bombers from Southeast. All bombed Hickam Field.
MinDiv ONE Undergoing scheduled overhaul, moored in repair base. Guns and ammunition removed. Crews, except the watch on board, living in Navy Yard receiving barracks.
MinDiv ONE Japanese planes were seen to attack the BB's. Men were sent to adjacent ships, NEW ORLEANS, SAN FRANCISCO, and CUMMINGS, to assist in manning A.A. guns and handle ammunition. Meanwhile receiving barracks sent men (our) to other ships to assist in fighting fires or handling ammunition. These men reported to PENNSYLVANIA, CALIFORNIA, and WHITNEY. Also in the Yard. Miner's Mates were sent to West Loch. 50 and 30 caliber MG's were reassembled and remounted and ammunition was obtained from
NEW ORLEANS, SAN FRANCISCO and Marine Barracks. These guns were used against the enemy making the later attacks. No ship of division suffered damage.
PATTERSON Moored at berth X-11, battle stations manned. Opened fire with main and 50 caliber batteries. The PATTERSON considered that at least one enemy plane was shot down. The plane claimed by PATTERSON was one observed diving on CURTISS approaching from ahead at about 400 ft. Altitude. Plane was seen to fall apart at same time shot was fired by #2 gun.
PHOENIX First attacking plane sighted from Signal Bridge attacking from north of Ford Island. Plane had all guns firing. Passed over stern of RALEIGH and proceeded toward Ford Island Control Tower and dropped bomb.
PREBLE On 7 December was undergoing Navy Yard overhaul at berth Z-15 with no ammunition on board and the engineering plant dismantled. First attack on battleships began with about 20 torpedo planes. Planes were in low horizontal flight when observed and attacked from eastward. Enemy planes approached battleships to close range before releasing torpedoes.
RALEIGH Commanding Officer felt dull explosion and looking out airport observed water boiling amidships. Received report that Japanese were attacking fleet. Sounded general quarters.
Both planes were successfully hoisted out by hand power. Doctor was directed to report to SOLACE.  Damage repair party was sent to capsized UTAH to cut men out of hull. Sent Signal to send pontoon and a lighter alongside from BALTIMORE to RALEIGH. These were delivered and secured to port quarter and acted as an out-rigger. Torpedoes, minus war heads were pushed overboard and beached at Ford Island. All stanchions, boat skids and life rafts and booms were jettisoned. Both anchors let go.
RAMAPO O. O. D. Observed Japanese dive bomber come in close and drop couple of bombs. Sounded General Quarters and opened fire with A.A. Guns (3"/). Motor Torpedo Boats on board also opened fire with machine guns. Order of attack observed to be dive bombers strafing, torpedo planes, dive bombers bombing, horizontal planes bombing. Our personnel reported 3" shell hit plane. No losses in personnel and no material damage.
RAMSAY Moored at berth D-3 observed bomb land on western end of Ford Island.
REID Observed unidentified plane attacking Ford Island.
SOLACE Received report of air raid, closed all watertight doors and ports, called away rescue parties; prepared hospital facilities and sent 2 motor launches with rescue parties to ARIZONA.
SUMNER Was moored to the new dock at the southern end of the Submarine Base, port side to, bow to eastward. Armament is four 3" 23 caliber A.A. guns, four 50 caliber machine guns, and one 5" 51 caliber broadside.
SWAN Sounded General Quarters. In Marine Railway, boiler upkeep. Observed bomb dropped on South ramp of Fleet Air Base. TAUTOG Observed about 20 planes approaching on line of OAHU rail road tracks, and over Merry's point. Torpedoes were dropped from about 50 feet after submarine base pier was passed. Fourth plane in line and plane near end of line were shot down by this ship and HULBERT before torpedoes were dropped.
A Japanese plane flew from North to South over a fish pond adjacent to water front resident of Lt. R. B. Black, U. S. N. R. on the East shore of Pearl City Peninsula. A long burst of machine gun fire was directed at the breakwater enclosing the fish pond, and a single fisherman wearing a white shirt was seen to run rapidly along the breakwater. This material is forwarded to indicate that enemy pilots were directing fire at individuals (civilians) at a considerable distance from any military objectives.
VESTAL Sounded General Quarters. Manned A. A. Battery, 3" A. A. and .5" broadside and .30 cal. M. G.
VIREO Moored inboard at Coal Dock (seaward end) with TURKEY, BOBOLINK, and RAIL, outboard.
WIDGEON No remarks except machine gun and rifle fire used against enemy. No losses or damage.
WEST VIRGINIA Passed word "Away fire and rescue party" followed by General Quarters. Two heavy shocks felt on hull of W. VA. Apparently forward and on port side. Ship began to list rapidly to port. Another third heavy shock felt to port. Plane on top of turret 4 caught on fire. A heavy explosion occurred with about 20 list on ship to port. Central station directed to counterflood. The following last explosion flashed a flame about 15 feet high occurred forward on ARIZONA. A second flash occurred on the ARIZONA higher than the foretop. Burning debris rained on Quarter Deck of W. VA. After the 2 ARIZONA explosions the W. VA. began to right itself when a large fire broke out amidships. Word received from central station to abandon ship. A wall of flame advancing toward the W. VA. and TENNESSEE from the ARIZONA. W. VA. Personnel began to abandon ship as fire had grown out of control. Meanwhile magazines of W. VA. Had been flooded. W. VA. personnel report to TENNESSEE. Remaining survivors ashore and elsewhere sent back to W. VA. to fight fire. Fire on W. VA. extinguished Monday afternoon.
BOBOLINK Ready duty status, moored at next end, of coal docks with VIREO and TURKEY inboard, RAIL outboard. Informed by gangway watch that Japanese Planes were bombing us. Sounded General Quarters.
GAMBLE Wave of about 50 Japanese planes attacked Battleships and Naval Air Station, Ford Island, planes flying at low altitudes about 500 feet over Battleships from direction of Diamond Head, about 700 feet over Ford Island. Five successive waves of the attack of about 10 planes each.
MinDiv TWO Went to General Quarters and set Condition "A".
THORNTON Reports attack by Japanese Aircraft commenced; General Alarm was sounded and all hands went to Air Defense Stations. THORNTON moored port side to dock at Berth S-1, Submarine Base Pearl Harbor. Stations manned were as follows: Control, Machine Gun Battery Control, Repair, and 4 .50 cal. Machine Guns, 3 .30 Cal. Lewis Machine Guns, 3 .30 Browning automatic rifles, and 12 .30 cal. Springfield rifles.
Ensign Chiles of JARVIS called Lieut. Ford and said "Someone is bombing us".
BREESE Opened fire with .50 cal. Machine guns.
CONYNGHAM Observed Torpedo planes attacking RALEIGH, UTAH and DETROIT from the West.
DEWEY Sounded General Quarters.
HELENA Moored at 1010 Dock, Berth 2, portside to Dock. OGLALA alongside starboard side. Reported observed planes over Ford Island, 14,000 ft. altitude. Signalman on bridge with previous duty on Asiatic Station identified planes immediately. General Alarm sounded and service ammunition broke out.
HULL GENERAL QUARTERS. Prepared to get underway.
NEW ORLEANS Moored at Berth 16, Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor undergoing Engine Repairs, receiving power and light from Dock. Sighted Enemy planes dive bombing Ford Island; sounded General Quarters.
PENNSYLVANIA In Dry Dock #1. 3 Propeller Shafts removed. Destroyers CASSIN and DOWNES in Dock ahead of PENNSYLVANIA. Floating Dock West of new dry dock adjoining PENNSYLVANIA occupied by SHAW. Cruiser HELENA and OGLALA at Berth B-2 (PENNSYLVANIA normal berth). CALIFORNIA in F-3. MARYLAND in F-4 inboard. OKLAHOMA outboard: Berth F-6, TENNESSEE inboard WEST VIRGINIA outboard, F7 ARIZONA, F8 NEVADA. Machine Guns in foremast manned and condition watch of A. A. personnel available. Ship receiving steam, water and power from yard. Heard explosions on end of Ford Island and realized an Air Raid in progress after 2nd explosion. Air defense sounded, followed by General Quarters. Set Condition YOKE.
SUMNER Signal watch and Quartermaster on Bridge sighted ten dive bombers attacking Navy Yard. Observed two explosions in Navy Yard. Sounded Alarm.
TREVER Mine Division FOUR moored at Buoys D-7 bows toward Pearl City, in order from North: TREVER, WASMUTH, ZANE, and PERRY. Sounded General Quarters at time when first bomb was dropped by Japanese on North side of Ford Island.
WASMUTH WASMUTH reports first Japanese planes attacked. Went to General Quarters at once with all guns in action within 3 minutes. However, as ship was inside nest of four, only two after guns could bear. Made all preparations for getting underway.
PATRON 21 First Bomb dropped near VP-22 Hangar. Message order broadcast to all ships present "AIR RAID P. H. X THIS IS NOT DRILL" (a similar message was sent by CinCPac).
ZANE ZANE moored bow and stern to nest with Mine Division FOUR at buoys D-7; order from port to starboard: TREVER, WASMUTH, ZANE and PERRY. First call to standby colors sounded, Signalmen on watch observed single Japanese plane drop bomb from about 10000 feet on southern end Ford Island after approach from Northward. Sounded General Quarters; manned A. A. battery. Commenced firing with A. A. battery at all planes passing within reasonable distances. Made all preparations to get underway.
ANTARES ANTARES heard explosion in Pearl Harbor and observed Japanese planes delivering attack.
BAGLEY BAGLEY observed Torpedo Plane come in from direction of Merry Point between Navy Yard and Kuahua Island, 30 or 40 feet altitude, headed for OKLAHOMA. About 2 or 3 hundred yards from OKLAHOMA, plane dropped its torpedo and hit OKLAHOMA amidships, sounded General Quarters and commenced firing. Hit fourth plane coming in which was seen to crash in channel off Officers' Club landing. Machine gun fire on 8th plane made it swerve to left causing torpedo to drop and explode in bank about 30 feet ahead of BAGLEY. Number one machine gun downed plane in Navy Yard channel. Third torpedo plane hit by BAGLEY was observed headed for light cruisers HONOLULU and ST. LOUIS astern of BAGLEY. Plane went out of control, dropped its torpedo and seemed to hit L-head Crane in Navy Yard. This was about the eleventh plane to come in. Next plane hit by BAGLEY came over dock but was downed with a short burst. Torpedo dropped in lumber pile and plane believed to have crashed on dock. Fifth plane brought down by BAGLEY came down on starboard side, nose directly up into air and spun into crash loosing its torpedo. Sixth plane brought down by BAGLEY was a dive bomber during second phase of attack and after torpedo attack. This plane was shot down by 5" gun and those from other ships.
CUMMINGS CUMMINGS observed enemy planes making torpedo attack on Battleships moored to East side of Ford Island. Sounded General Quarters.
GAMBLE Went to General Quarters, opened fire with .50 cal. Machine guns on planes passing over nest at about 800 feet altitude. Set Material Condition Affirm except for certain protected Ammunition Passages.
JARVIS General Quarters sounded on JARVIS.
HULBERT HULBERT sounded General Quarters. Torpedo plane sighted heading West over East Lock preparing to launch torpedo against Battleship off Ford Island. HULBERT reports bringing down 1 Japanese Torpedo Plane by .50 cal. A. A. fire from Berth S-3, Submarine Base.
HULL Gangway watch opened fire with .45 caliber pistol on two (2) planes crossing bow within 50 yards.
MUGFORD Moored Port side to the USS SACRAMENTO, Berth No. 6, Navy Yard. USS JARVIS moored Port side to MUGFORD. Attack started. Japanese planes dive on Ford Island. Several large bombs struck the sea plane landing ramp followed by explosions near hangars. Several Japanese planes came in low from Southwest and released torpedoes which struck OKLAHOMA and WEST VIRGINIA. Enemy torpedo planes came in continuously from same direction and fired torpedoes at the Battleships.
REID REID went to General Quarters.
RIGEL Ford Island attack by 10 dive bombers from North at 10,000 feet.
TENNESSEE TENNESSEE attacked by enemy planes (Japanese). Oily water around stern burning. Canvas awning on stern on fire, Turret III. Smoke pouring into Repair I. Smoke so thick, cannot see. Repair I have men standby magazine flood, Turret III. All boats on fire. Fire in Maintop, secondary aft. Fire in maintop seems to be out. WEST VIRGINIA's quarterdeck and planes on fire. Fire on Turret III. Could not get morphine out of doctor's room because it was unsafe, men report that room was too hot to go in and cut safe open, D-310 excessively hot investigate. Squadron of planes diving on Navy Yard. Repair I, unit 3, abandoned station too hot. Fire on topside seems to be under control. D-310 A is all right. Set Condition ZED in lower handling room of Turret III. OKLAHOMA seems to be capsizing. CALIFORNIA down by the stern. WEST VIRGINIA has pretty bad fire below Signal Bridge. TENNESSEE was hit twice, soon after attack began: one hit (bomb) on face of Turret II, and bomb hit on top of Turret III, penetrating.
THORNTON THORNTON commenced firing with .50 cal. machine gun battery followed immediately by .30 cal. machine guns and .30 cal. rifles.
GAMBLE GAMBLE opened fire with 3"/23 cal. AA guns, firing as planes came within range, fuses set 3 to 8 secs.
HELM First enemy plane sighted in shallow dive over Ford Island, headed Northwest. Observed first bomb hit on hangar at southwest end of Ford Island. Called crew to General Quarters. Opened magazines and got ammunition to guns.
JARVIS Lieut. Ford and Lieut. Johnson of JARVIS reach bridge. Jap torpedo planes coming in at 30 to 60 second intervals, approaching from Merry Point direction and attacking BBs.
SUMNER Observed torpedo planes approach over S. E. Loch attacking BBs, circling Ford Island and flying off to south west.
WHITNEY Observed air raid attack by Japanese air force and explosions on Ford Island, WHITNEY moored bow and stern to buoys X-8 and X-8x, 6 fathoms of water, supplying steam, electricity, fresh and flush-water to CONNYNGHAM, REID, TUCKER, CASE, and SELFRIDGE, moored alongside to port.
PELIAS PELIAS reports 9 dive bombers attacked out of direction of sun the Battleships. One broke off and dive bombed PENNSYLVANIA.
Two officers from ship hiking in back of Aiea witnessed attack. They stated later that 3 separate flights of planes appeared at 3 levels; low, medium and high from the north.
VIREO C. O. VIREO heard an explosion. Immediately Japanese planes were seen, and General Quarters sounded.
ANTARES ANTARES under machine gun fire. Topside hit by machine gun bullets, bomb and shell fragments. Being unarmed no offensive tactics were possible. In order to avoid placing ship and personnel in jeopardy, authority was requested to enter Honolulu Harbor.
COMINBATFOR Comincraft in OGLALA observed enemy bomb fall seaward and Ford Island; no damage. The next bomb caused fires near waters. Flames flared up from structures south end of island. Next bomb fell alongside or on board 7 battleships moored at F-1 east side of Ford Island. Jap planes flew between fifty and l00 feet of water, dropping 3 torpedoes or mines in channel on line between OGLALA and seaward end of Ford Island.  Torpedo hit OGLALA and HELENA simultaneously. These ships were moored abreast of B-2 of ten ten dock OGLALA outboard. Both ships opened fire with A. A. battery. OGLALA signaled C-C possibility that mines had been dropped. Two contract tugs were hailed to haul OGLALA aft of HELENA. Submersible pumps for OGLALA were obtained from HELENA, but could not be used as no power was available. Observed one Jap plane shot down. Planes were strafing as well as bombing. Observed 4 battleships hit with bombs, fires broke out, and one battleship turned over. Enemy planes appeared to fly in groups of 6 to l0. NEVADA underway to clear channel, but apparently was struck by torpedo or mine. A minute later 2 bombs fell only one hit in the NEVADA. On 2nd attack observed bomb dropped on fwd part of PENNSYLVANIA in dry-dock. Flames appeared from two destroyers in the same dock. Observed another Jap plane fall in water. Observed
bomb fall close to destroyers in floating dry-dock. Destroyer later caught on fire.
VP-21 CPW2 search plan transmitted by radio and telephone. Experienced difficulty in communicating with Kanehoe.
CASSIN CASSIN saw another plane come down to about 75 feet on parallel course drydock #1. Plane dropped torpedo aimed at CALIFORNIA at range 200 yards.
CASTOR CASTOR 3" A. A. and 30 cal. machine guns commenced firing against enemy torpedo planes, low and close aboard, and against dive bombers. Observed one enemy torpedo plane at about 500 to 700 yards range and 500 ft. altitude due aft of ship and heading across to Ford Island with parts of fuselage shot away. Plane grounded either on Ford Island or beyond. Removed covered lighter alongside with 450 serial depth charges.
DOLPHIN Machine guns and rifles manned and fired at enemy aircraft which were flying very low. Ready identification could be made by the large red balls on each wing. Report received plane had been shot down and dove into channel off pier 5.
BLUE UTAH torpedoed. General alarm was sounded, and word passed throughout the ship to man battle stations and prepare to get underway immediately.
RIGEL RIGEL vicinity #1 dry dock and ten ten dock strafed and bombed by 13 dive bombers from South. Altitude 600 to 100 feet.
WHITNEY WHITNEY sounded general quarters. First plane passed over ship low altitude, strafing with machine guns.
HELM Torpedo planes sighted approaching from direction of Barber's Point. They passed over West Loch channel and dropped torpedoes either in North Channel or across the Island. Targets for these planes appeared to he ships in berths F-9 to F-13. The planes came in low and several strafed the ship. All bullets missed the ship by a few feet. No fire was opened, since the forward machine guns, which could bear were covered with preservative grease and had to be cleaned before they could fire.
HELM Backed engines and commenced maneuvering ship out of West Loch channel to head for entrance.
JARVIS Ensign Greene OOD of JARVIS reported on bridge. Prior to this he had been directing activities around the quarterdeck. He was told to go to the after firing battery. Ensign Chiles was actively organizing the forward battery without orders. Ensign Fleece already on the director. Orders given to open fire.
MUGFORD Commenced assembly of engineering plant which had been placed out of commission for yard overhaul. Connected fuel oil hose to yard line. 8,000 gallons total on board.
PHOENIX Bombing attack on BBs. Plane markings, varied U. S. Swastikas, and rising sun painted on fuselage.
RALEIGH Opened fire with AA battery of 3"/50 cal. 1.1" and .50 cal. guns. Ship started to heel to port and received report that torpedo had struck #2 fireroom. #1 and 2 firerooms and forward engineroom completely flooded. Fire in #3 went out. Directed counter-flooding. As it appeared that ship would capsize, orders were given to jettison topside.
RALEIGH Both planes successfully hoisted out by hand. Doctor was directed to report to SOLACE. Damage repair party was sent to capsized UTAH to cut men out of hull. Sent signal to send pontoons and lighter from alongside BALTIMORE to RALEIGH. These were delivered and secured to port quarter and acted as outrigger. Torpedoes minus warheads were beached at Ford Island. All stanchions, boat skids, and life rafts and booms were jettisoned. Anchors were let go.
UTAH Attacked by torpedo plane and bombing plane. Sounded General Quarters. Received severe underwater hit frame 84, portside, followed by another hit which caused ship to list 15 . Passed word "all hands on deck". Not possible to repel attack as all ammunition was in magazines and secured. 5" and 1.1 guns covered with steel housing; .50 and .30 caliber machine guns dismounted and stowed below decks. Ship covered with two layers 6 by 12 timbers. Above conditions necessitated by UTAH being used by ships as bombing target during current operations. Received bomb explosion in port aircastle.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1579
PRUITT Reported OKLAHOMA and ARIZONA attacked from southerly direction. Number of torpedo planes attacked from southeast.
NEVADA Observed enemy air attack. Sounded general quarters. Two machine guns forward and two aft had been already on continuous watch under the alert program.
MUGFORD Sounded General Quarters.
SUMNER Saw dense smoke rising behind Kuahuai Peninsula believed from ARIZONA, blazing oil floating down from line of BBs. Opened fire #3 gun manned and commenced firing four minutes after the attack on Navy Yard was observed, and before any other gun in the vicinity had commenced firing. Made direct hit on and destroyed torpedo plane making approach on BBs.
HELENA Opened fire. Hit by torpedo, range 500 yds., starboard side, approximately frame 75, 18 feet below water line. Four near misses from bombs received and one strafing attack with little damage. Issued gas masks and protective clothing. Once gun opposition was in full swing, Japanese plans were noted to turn away from gunfire or keep at respectable altitude.
DEWEY Four .50 caliber machine guns fired at planes attacking battle ships and Ford Island.
TREVER Opened fire with .50 caliber machine guns.
NEVADA Opened fire with machine guns on enemy planes approaching on port beam. One plane brought down 100 yards off NEVADA's port quarter; one plane dropped torpedo which struck the NEVADA on port bow.
PENNA. Attack by Torpedo planes from west and south, about 12 or 15. PENNA. Reported as first ship opening fire on plane. After release of torpedoes three planes came in low from port beam strafing PENNA., though not affected. Bearing of torpedo attack and one enemy plane observed to burst into flame 2000 yds on stbd. bow. Dive bombing attacks and torpedo attacks on Pearl Harbor, and dive bombing attacks on Hickam Field.
CUMMINGS After Machine guns opened fire on Japanese Torpedo planes.
CALIFORNIA Opened fire with machine guns and ready guns, on torpedo planes.
SWAN Opened fire with 3" A. A. guns. All sea valves and hatches closed and commenced placing boilers in commission. Observed one direct hit with 3" gun plane crashed beyond drydock area. No material damage suffered.
CACHALOT Enemy planes passed within range and arc of guns. Opened up with .30 and .50 caliber machine guns.
NEVADA NEVADA opened fire with 5" A. A. Members of crew claim both broadside scored direct hit on torpedo plane which disintegrated in midair.
JARVIS Machine guns opened fire.
WHITNEY Commenced firing with .50 cal. AA guns. Received signal to get underway.
MUGFORD Opened fire with 50 caliber MGs. Shot down Japanese plane, altitude 800 feet on the stbd. quarter, passing aft on stbd. hand. This plane had fired a torpedo at the USS OGLALA.
TRACY Observed torpedo planes coming in from easterly direction and launching torpedoes at BBs at Ford Is. At first attack ship closed up as much as possible and broke out fighting equipment.
NEW ORLEANS Sighted enemy torpedo planes on port quarter, flying low across stern. Rifle fire and pistol fire opened from fantail as first planes flew by to launch torpedoes at battleships. Manned 1.1 battery and machine guns aft in time to fire at three or four enemy planes.
VESTAL Struck by two bombs. VESTAL moored to port side of ARIZONA B-F7. One bomb struck stbd side fr. 44. Penetrated 3 decks, exploding in GSK stores, cutting fire main and electric cables in crew space. Hold set on fire and wrecked. Another bomb struck at fr. 110 on port side, passed through the ships and fuel oil tank. Bomb explosion forward damaged practically all stores. Heat of explosion necessitated flooding fwd magazines. Material damaged consisted of 3 life rafts, 6 mooring lines, one gangway, port lenses and windows broken.
1580 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
VESTAL Opened fire, and shortly after A. A. breach jammed blast from ARIZONA cleared gun station, killing one man. Fired with machine guns on enemy planes until they were withdrawn.
Fired at torpedo plane which was seen to burst into flame and disappear over Ford Island. Following personnel damage was done: 9 dead, 7 missing, 19 in hospital.
RIGEL BBs attacked from altitude 125 feet from southeast by 12 torpedo planes, 300 to 500 yard range.
HELM Opened fire with after machine guns at planes over main channel, followed shortly by forward machine guns firing at passing torpedo planes.
HULL #4 machine gun opened fire.
CURTISS Firing with 5" local control and .50 caliber machine guns. Lighted off boilers 1, 2 and 4.
UTAH Listed about 40° to port. Attacking planes strafed crew as ship was abandoned.
SUMNER Torpedo plane passed close aboard within 100 yards of SUMNER stern on West course. Altitude 75'. Leveled off for launching torpedo at BB. Struck by direct hit from SUMNER's #3 A. A. gun, range 300 yards. Plane disintegrated in smoke and sank in fragments. Torpedo believed sunk without exploding.
JARVIS 5" opened fire. #3 gun believed to be the first 5" gun in harbor to open fire.
BREESE Opened fire with 3" A. A. Guns.
RAMSAY Sounded general quarters and opened fire with .50 cal. And 3" guns. RAMSAY liberty party returning in MONTGOMERY boat was strafed by torpedo planes which were observed to fire 3 torpedoes into UTAH and RALEIGH.
GAMBLE Mounted and commenced firing with .30 cal. machine guns on galley deck house.
BLUE Opened fire with .50 caliber machine guns on Japanese planes diving on ships in harbor.
CASSIN Observed HELENA open fire followed by PENNSYLVANIA.
CALIFORNIA Reported two torpedoes struck port side, frame 100, making 40 ft. long hole extending from first seam below armor belt to bilge keel.
PHOENIX Made radio signal to ships of sector four "prepare to get underway".
PRUITT Observed Jap bomber shot down. ARIZONA listed sharply, smoke and flames.
BOBOLINK and TURKEY commenced firing. Directed other boats in nest to tie up to destroyer buoys adjacent to battle rafts in order to disperse.
BLUE Opened fire with 5"/38 caliber guns on Japanese planes. The engine room was ordered immediately to light off No. 2 boiler (#1 already steaming) and made all preparations for getting underway. Repair party cleared the ship for action, and made all preparations for slipping quickly from the mooring.
HELM Opened fire with 5" battery. Not hits observed.
HULL #l 5"/38 cal. opened fire.
CURTISS Sent Engine Room emergency underway signal.
PHOENIX One plane burning in water at end of pipe-line astern of berth F-8.
CUMMINGS Opened fire on horizontal bombers approaching over Navy Yard from southerly direction.
CONYNGHAM Opened fire with 5" gun and machine guns on attacking planes.
MUGFORD USS OKLAHOMA had capsized. W. VA. listed heavily to port, ARIZONA blew up.
WHITNEY Making preparations for getting underway. Supplies issued to destroyers alongside.
HULL #5 gun, 5"/38 cal. Opened fire, followed by guns #2, #3, and #4.
THORNTON First dive bombing attack ended.
CUMMINGS Commenced preparation for getting underway in accordance general signal. Opened fire main battery on dive bombers over BBs.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1581
Enemy aircraft bomb struck hangar and aircraft parking space adjacent to VP-24 parking area. Ready plane suffered a severed wing spar. Plane was then machine gunned and caught fire. Fire was extinguished and plane has been repaired and is in service. Plane undergoing structural changes not damaged and is now operating. Personnel present mounted machine guns in available planes and opened fire on attacking planes. One low-winged biplane flying from across hangar 54 on course about 250 lost both wings.
NEW ORLEANS All batteries NEW ORLEANS except 8" battery in action. Area around berths 14-19 incl. subjected to dive bombing attack by approximately ten enemy planes. Attack turned away by combined fire of HONOLULU and NEW ORLEANS. Observed three bombs drop: one falling ahead of and another falling astern of the RIGEL. These failed to explode. Third bomb landed midway between RIGEL and NEW ORLEANS exploding and causing damage from flying fragments. During raid yard power failed or was cut off leaving vessel in darkness without power except auxiliary battery power. Heavy drain of machinery raising steam for getting underway exhausted auxiliary batteries so much that lighting was very dim and of practically no use. All work in engineering spaces, magazines and ammunition passageways conducted by flashlight. Hoists and guns worked by hand with consequent reduction of volume of fire. AA directors were off ship.
UTAH Listed 80° to port mooring lines parting and two minutes later ship capsized. Ship abandoned.
UTAH Capsized. Salvage operations undertaken immediately in order to rescue entrapped personnel. 32 men thus rescued. Estimated number of torpedoes to hit ship about 5; no bombs were observed to have hit.
PHOENIX mg battery opened fire on attacking planes.
DEWEY Guns 1-2-3 and 5 5", no power on ship.
HELM Fire from port machine gun hit plane approaching from South. Plane observed to veer sharply, catch on fire and crash behind trees near Hickam Field. Damage to enemy: 1 plane shot down by machine gun fire.
CASSIN Observed Japanese plane crash over tree near hospital. Five high altitude, 12,000 ft. bombers passed overhead from forward aft and dropped large bombs.
PRUITT Observed OKLAHOMA roll over.
GAMBLE Commenced making preparations to get underway. Lighted off four boilers.
CALIFORNIA Opened fire with 5" guns on dive bombers.
W. VIRGINIA Commanding Officer, Captain M. S. Bennion mortally wounded.
WHITNEY Set condition affirm. Commenced firing with 3" A. A. guns.
JARVIS Counted 6 or 7 torpedoes in OKLAHOMA, NEVADA, WEST VIRGINIA, and ARIZONA also torpedoed. Apparently ARIZONA forwarded magazine exploded. Noted OGLALA torpedoed alongside HELENA at 10-10 dock.
REID Opened fire with after machine guns.
WHITNEY No material or personnel damage.
PELIAS Reports formation of high altitude planes came in from S. W. attacking battleships and Ford Island followed by another wave from the same direction. Torpedo planes were small and carried only one bomb. Dive bombers also small and carried but one bomb.
RAIL At coal docks nested with 4 minesweeps. Opened fire with 3" A. A. 15 minutes after first bomb dropped on Pearl. Opened fire with .30 machine guns, rifles and pistols 20 minutes after first attack. A string of 20 bombs fell in channel astern. Shrapnel fell throughout ship. No material or personnel damage.
MUGFORD OGLALA listing to port. Attack started again. Heavy A. A. fire.
OUTGOING Hostilities with Japan commenced with air raid on Pearl.
COMSECTOR FOUR: Sector 4 Prepare to get underway.
HULL All machine guns plus two automatic rifles on the bridge and one on after deck, firing.
1582 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
RIGEL Torpedo planes attacked from S. E. at 500 feet and attacked BBs from altitude 125 feet, range 300 to 500 yards.
Task Force 8 received message from CinC Air Raid on Pearl Harbor. This is no drill. This time about coincided with expected arrival ENTERPRISE planes at Pearl. Task Force Comdr. first concerned that planes were assumed to be unfriendly by harbor defenses. It was not until subsequent dispatches were received that it was realized hostilities with Japan had begun. TF-8 operated in area South Kaula Rock for air attack should enemy be located North or South of Oahu. No authentic information available regarding location. Maintained combat and inner air patrols.
SICARD Undergoing overhaul in Navy Yard stbd side to PRUITT Berth 18. Ship totally disabled as to main and auxiliary machinery and gun battery. Observed Squadron of Japanese planes coming in from Southwest, diving from 5,000 feet on Ford Island.
CONYNGHAM Observed attacking plane shot down by fire from nest. Plane crashed near CURTISS.
HELM Passed gate vessel.
Aircraft in flight informed hostilities with Japan commenced with air raid on Pearl. VP-21 directed to search sector 240-280 for carriers. Ten miles south of Barbers Point plane 24VP-4 sighted unidentified submarine near force consisting of INDIANAPOLIS and 4 destroyers. Submarine made crash dive and spot marked by float lights. Completed search through 200 miles and returned to Pearl.
PENNA Reports NEVADA underway and about on PENNA stbd qtr. Distance about 600 yards when dive bombing attack observed approaching PENNA on port bow. 10 or 15 planes coming in succession just before reaching PENNA 2/3 planes appeared to swerve to left. Number of them dropping bombs at the NEV. 1 dive bomber dropped bomb on SHAW in floating dry dock and set it on fire. NEV observed to slowly swing around head to port broadside to channel, on fire forward.
VIREO Observed 2nd Group of enemy planes fly toward Hickam Field. VIREO opened fire expending 22 rounds 3" A. A. ammunition.
RIGEL Undergoing major repairs and conversion at Navy Yard. No motive power available. All power etc. from yard. Air attack began. As this vessel had no armament no offensive action could be taken. Accordingly rescue work was commenced on WEST VIRGINIA personnel. About 100 men (in track of burning oil) had been blown into the water. These were rescued first. The torpedo bombing and machine gun  assaults on the WEST VIRGINIA continued while the rescue operations progressed. One rescue boat was struck by bomb and sunk. Crew thrown into water. Moored B-13 Navy Yard undergoing major repairs. Services from Navy Yard.
SICARD Set condition of readiness "AFFIRM". 2 fire parties were formed fore and aft.
MUGFORD Shot down one enemy plane bearing astern making approach on battleship at altitude 20 feet off water. Plane crashed on Ford Island aflame, torpedo not launched.
PHOENIX A. A. Battery opened fire.
CASSIN Observed another group of 6 high altitude bombers passed overhead and let loose bombs.
PRUITT Observed 12 bombing planes in close "V" formation bombed (horizontal attack) from 10,000 feet from Southwest.
JARVIS All guns and machine guns of JARVIS in action. MUGFORD noted to be delivering high volume of fire.
SUMNER Checked fire.
CINCPAC Directed Compatwing TWO locate enemy force.
HELM Sighted conning tower of submarine to right of channel, Northward of buoy #1. Gave orders to open fire, pointer fire, but submarine submerged before guns could get on.
CONYNGHAM Opened fire with remaining 5" guns at horizontal bombers passing overhead in direction of Schofield Barracks.
TRACY Sent men to CUMMINGS to assist batteries and approximate 15 men to PENNA to fight fires.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1583
HELM Opened fire on submarine off Tripod Reef, no hits observed. Submarine appeared to be touching bottom on ledge of reef, and in line of breakers. Steering motor short circuited bridge lost steering control.
SICARD Was manned. 2 .30 cal. M. G. s. Bombers began to attack ships at 1010 dock and battleships in vicinity of Ford Island. SICARD hits were observed on planes but no apparent damage was done.
VESTAL Observed torpedo pass astern and hit ARIZONA. Simultaneously ARIZONA received bomb hit followed by her forward magazine exploding. Latter started fires aft and amidship of VESTAL. Shortly after that, ARIZ observed to be settling and fuel oil between VESTAL and ARIZ ignited.
PYRO Opened fire on planes.
MUGFORD Opened fire with 5"/38 battery.
SUMNER Ship ready for getting underway. Members of broadside gun crew and available engineers were armed with rifles and BAR's and stationed in upper works to act as snipers.
CALIFORNIA Torpedo struck port side, frame 47, making an irregular hole 27 x 32 ft., the top of which is 6 ft. below bottom of armor belt.
SOLACE Reports boat loads of casualties began to arrive. By this time all hospital supplies and facilities had been prepared for maximum service.
NEVADA Attack slackened.
REID Opened fire with after 5"/38 caliber on high altitude and dive bombers.
WHITNEY Observed Japanese plane fall in flames north channel vicinity X-5.
CUMMINGS Lull in air attack; ceased firing. Lack of DC power prevented use of director. Sound powered telephones and local control used.
HULBERT Claims share in bringing down a bomber.
HELM Observed torpedo pass close under stern on a northerly course.
TRACY Ready to open fire with 3 .30 caliber.
MUGFORD Signal received that parachutists or wrecked pilots were landing in Hickam Field.
CALIFORNIA Opened fire on horizontal bombers at 10,000 ft. with 5" guns.
BREESE Received signal to get underway but being inside nest could not do so.
Outgoing To COMTASKGR 12 & COMTASKGR 8: Report position.
SUMNER Opened fire on ten dive bombers attacking Navy Yard Dry Dock. These planes approached from cloud bank in Southeast. Hear terrific explosion in Navy Yard-vicinity of Dry Dock followed by dense cloud of smoke. Dive bomber passed 300 yards from SUMNER and DD's HULBERT and THORNTON, tail of plane ignited. Plane turned southward and disappeared over Halawa district. Observed six horizontal bombers approaching from southeast at 8,000 feet. Planes circled and approached Ford Island from Southwest and dropped bombs over DD's. Planes then circled to Southeast. One plane left it's formation, turned towards Navy Yard loosing altitude rapidly, passed SUMNER at 400 feet altitude range 600 yards, was fired on by SUMNER. When over center Southeast Loch, plane began smoking and was lost in thick smoke over Navy Yard. It was a two-seater monoplane, gunner in rear seat protected by shield, orange disc on side just abaft rear cockpit.
CURTISS Attacked by bombers.
Planes crossing low ahead of nest to Northeast were taken under fire by CONYNGHAM and nest. One burst into flames and exploded in clump of trees in Aiea Hights.
BREESE Received report submarine was in harbor.
SICARD Cease firing, expended 300 rounds .30 cal. M. G. ammunition.
PENNSY Lighted fires under #4 boiler.
CONYNGHAM Reports another plane diving toward Ford Island from Northeast shot down by combined fire of the nest.
1584 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
PENNA Reports about 5 high bombing attacks obs. to have passed over PENNA. One from port bow one from ahead one from ahead to stbd 2 from astern. Altitude about 2000 feet.
VIREO Brought down one enemy plane which landed in vicinity of Hickam Field. 400 rounds of .30 cal. M. G. ammunition expended. One personnel casualty to PRICE, Radioman, on telephone watch astern of vessel. PRICE returned to duty 10 December. No damage to vessel. Made ready to get underway.
VESTAL prepared to get underway.
MUGFORD Five enemy planes in V formation passed directly over head, making horizontal bombing attack.
SUMNER Checked fire.
RIGEL 15 Heavy bombers in 3-V formations 8 to 10 thousand feet from S. E. bombed BB's.
WHITNEY Issued ammunition and ordnance stores to destroyers along side. Secured steam to destroyers.
HELM Fired at enemy plane with forward machine guns. May have hit plane.
NEVADA Heavy bombing attack received.
HULL Two Vee's high level bombers (10,000 feet) directly overhead seen intermittently through the clouds. Opened fire with all guns. Formations broke up and dropped their bombs in cane field.
CALIFORNIA Opened fire on Dive bombers with T5" and forward machine guns; shot down one enemy dive bomber which crashed in flames.
BREESE Sighted conning towers of two submarines in North channel but could not open fire because of interior berth. Observed MONAGHAN proceed down channel at full speed to ram leading submarine which had just fired torpedo at USS CURTISS but missed, USS MONAGHAN dropped 2 depth charges and submarine, about 250 ton type arose upside down and sank.
ZANE Sighted strange submarine 200 yards astern of MEDUSA moored in K-23. Guns would not bear as ZANE was inboard ship.
CASSIN Received signal from PENNSYLVANIA, Senior destroyer officer report on board.
HENLEY underway from buoy X-11, Large bomb struck water 150 yards from port bow. Received signal "submarine in harbor". MACDONOUGH directly ahead made depth charge attack and cleared at high speed. HENLEY was third ship in sortie. After rounding Hospital Point, subjected to strafing attack by light bomber, coming up from astern and showing five distinct sources of machine gun fire from plane as plane passed ship. It was seen to crash offshore in a few minutes. Another light bomber approached from starboard at 2,000 feet and was taken under fire with another destroyer. Close burst forces plane to dive and it crashed into sea.
DOWNES Open fire with 5-inch. on blocks. DOWNES struck on after deck house by bombs.
RIGEL Captain returned on board. Bomb struck astern and midway between piers 13 & 14. 150 small holes were blown into port quarter RIGEL. Above waterline.
CURTISS Ready to get underway. Sighted submarine periscope on starboard quarter, distance 700 yards. Opened fire on submarine.
REID First group of enemy planes taken under fire of REID with forward 5" and .50 caliber machine guns.
Outgoing To NPL RDO SAN DIEGO & NPM RDO WAILUPE: I must have instantaneous relay for my dispatches.
COM-14 To NAS Pearl: Hostile Japanese air attack X Hickam Field bombed X stay clear this area as long as gas permits X keep in contact this station.
CALIFORNIA Reported one enemy plane shot down over Ford Island.
SICARD Observed 4 flights horizontal bombers attacking battleships, followed by 8 torpedo bombers. OKLAHOMA struck by several torpedoes, took heavy list to Stbd and capsized. ARIZONA struck by torpedoes and heavy bomb.
PYRO Observed enemy planes crash and burst into flame towards Barbers Point. Pilots bailed out. Observed damage to ship which consisted of broken steam line; repaired by ship's force.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1585
SICARD Sent working party 20 men to CUMMINGS to handle ammunition, and 4 gunner's mates to NEW ORLEANS to assist her battery. 10 men previously detailed to PENNSYLVANIA to assist damage control.
BOBOLINK Moved out of next and to first buoy. Observed Japanese plane crash near Hickam Field. Believe it result of minesweeper firing.
PREBLE Reports first phase of attack completed.
COM-14 To Ships present: Send boats to Ford Island.
MUGFORD W. V. burning. ARIZONA on fire. Tugs trying to pull overturned OKLA clear. USS VESTAL clearing NEVADA.
CALIFORNIA Shaken by 4 near bomb hits and splintered considerably by fragments.
CURTISS Submarine surfaced and fired one torpedo up North Channel toward destroyers. Conning tower hit twice by gun #3.
CURTIS Ceased firing on submarine and observed MONAGHAN drop 2 depth charges. Air bubbles and slick appeared.
CUMMINGS Opened fire to repel strafing attack. Glide bomber observed to veer away from ship with smoke trailing, passed over new boiler shop and disappeared in smoke.
JARVIS Noted NEVADA underway and standing out. Dive bombed, hit several times and beached. SHAW hit and caught on fire in drydock. Two destroyers in drydock with PENNSYLVANIA hit.
TREVER Ready for getting underway. TREVER could not clear because other ships astern were clearing buoys D-3 and D-4. Enemy plane brought down vicinity of Pearl City. Second plane brought down 200 yards off Beckoning Point.
MUGFORD USS VESTAL clear of NEVADA.
PHOENIX Ship ready to get underway.
SICARD Observed attack broken off.
VESTAL Observed ARIZONA quarterdeck awash. With no steering gear VESTAL got underway while tug pulled her bow away from ARIZONA. Starting to list to Stbd VESTAL was maneuvered into position with South end of McGrews Point bearing 30 distance 910 yds.
MUGFORD Executed signal to get underway to Task Forces One and Two. Tugs pulled OGLALA clear of HELENA.
CALIFORNIA Commander Stone, executive officer, arrived and assumed command of CALIFORNIA. Combatfor returned on board.
CACHALOT Dive bomb and strafing attacks made by enemy.
HULL Second attack. All attacks except one was broken up. One formation of three planes continued on. Two of these were shot down; one by USS DOBBIN and one by the next of ships. Two bombs landed astern of next, close to side of DOBBIN.
CASTOR Ready to get underway.
BLUE Underway upon execution of signal to get underway from berth X-7. Maintained fire on enemy planes with main battery and machine guns while steaming out of harbor. Four planes fired on with main battery were later seen to go down in smoke. It is claimed that two of these planes were definitely shot down by this vessel. One was seen to crash in field on Waipio Pena., and the second crashed into crane on stern of USS CURTISS. Two planes that dove over the ship were fired on by the .50 caliber machine guns. It is claimed that one of these planes, seen to crash near Pan American Dock, was shot down by this vessel.
MUGFORD W. VA. listed heavily to port.
ZANE Reports MONAGHAN approached and depth charged submarine. Enemy plane brought down flying over nest, struck deperming station.
SUMNER Dispatched ship's boats to Ford Island to assist in hauling ammunition.
DOWNES Hit again by bombs and set on fire. Abandoned ship.
COMDESFLOT 1 To DESFLOT 1: Desdiv TWO establish Offshore patrol.
MUGFORD Executed signal to get underway and sortie according to plan E-S.
COM-14 To Cincpac. Submarine reported in Pearl Harbor for Sector Comdrs.
MUGFORD Attack started again from North.
CONYNGHAM Fired at plane strafing ahead and astern.
1586 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
CONYNGHAM Fired at plane strafing ahead and astern.
Underway from Buoy D-3 Middle Loch RAMSEY, BREESE, GAMBLE, and MONTGOMERY. Opened fire with AA.
MUGFORD NEVADA underway. Dense smoke over Ford Island. A tanker was towed clear of Ford Island.
PRUITT Observed about 10 planes made high altitude horizontal bombing.
WHITNEY Observed second air attack by Japanese bombing planes.
USS RALPH TALBOT Was moored bow to southward to buoy X-11 with PATTERSON to port and HENLEY to starboard.
RAMSAY Underway proceeding out of harbor. Believe RAMSAY is responsible for shooting down plane with .50 cal. Assumed anti-submarine patrol on clearing channel.
CTF 9 To all ships: Enemy submarine in North Channel.
UNKNOWN To Cincpac: Ten aircraft approaching Pearl Harbor from Southwest.
TRACY Reports high altitude bombers passed overhead in several waves. One bomb fell in slip between stern of RIGEL and CUMMINGS at Berth 15.
MUGFORD Attack started again from the South. Army planes taking off from HICKAM FIELD.
RIGEL Executive Officer returned on board. Traffic congestion delayed all hands. The one exception to all hands was Lt. H. E. Morgan who did not return until 0800 next morning. Lt. Morgan's behavior is being investigated.
SICARD Observed dive bombers from S. E. attack ships moored to Navy Yard docks, followed by waves of dive and horizontal bombers on ships at Ford Island and docks.
OGLALA Approaching 40° list to port. Ordered all hands abandon ship. Only gun crews and Cominbatfor remained.
PHOENIX Formation of 11 planes passed over fleet on heading 070. Approximate altitude l0,000 feet. Planes appeared to be painted silver, Expended fifty rounds of 5". No apparent damage to planes. There were two flights of this nature. Time of second cannot be approximated. Expended fifty rounds of 5".
HONOLULU Enemy bomber sighted flying directly towards this ship from direction Merry Point with an altitude of 1,000 feet. Was seen to swerve to its left, pass over the Navy Yard, smoking, losing altitude and appeared to crash near Naval Hospital. This plane was under the fire of several ships. Including the port 5" and machine gun batteries of the HONOLULU. Damage to enemy observed, one torpedo plane shot down between berth 21, Submarine Base, one torpedo plane shot down between berth 21 BB. (Note: Damage listed above is at unknown times.)
TAUTOG Observed planes approaching in direction Hickam Field high in southwest and mostly obscured by clouds. App. 18 planes turned left over Hickam Field and made dive bombing attacks on ships in yard. Dive appeared slow and bombs released were very low. One plane observed out of control in flames. Scattered enemy planes observed until 1130. Most dive bombers appeared to drop two bombs each.
CALIFORNIA One bomb, possibly 15" projectile with tale vanes, struck CALIFORNIA abreast casemate one, frame 59, penetrated to second deck and exploded rupturing forward and after bulkheads of A-611 and overhead into A-705. Armored hatch to machine shop badly sprung and couldn't be closed, resulting in serious fire.
BREESE Projectile from BREESE 3" AA battery struck dive bomber which had just attacked CURTISS. Forward section of plane with motor landed on North side of Waipio Peninsula.
RALPH TALBOT Underway. While enroute to entrance expended 150 rounds 5"/38 cal. and 1500 rounds .50 cal. Observed two planes crash and another start to smoke badly. Two enemy planes dove low over bridge and was hit by our .50 cal. machine guns. Plane crashed along shore Pearl City abeam of us. Used after 5" guns to fire on plane attacking CURTISS.
DEWEY Second wave attack started by light bombers lasting 10 minutes under fire by DEWEY throughout attack.
PATTERSON Underway and stood out of harbor. No damage sustained by PATTERSON.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1587
SOLACE Ship underway and shifted from Berth X4 to Berth X13. No material or personnel damage to ship proper.
BOBOLINK Observed suspicious sign of Japanese submarine and signaled to destroyers, but signal apparently not seen.
BOBOLINK Observed three flights of high altitude bombers approaching from due south to north. 7 planes in each flight, altitude about 17,000 feet. One flight dropped bombs on Hickam, second flight passed directly over coal docks and dropped bombs further up in yard; third flight passed over West Loch, one plane dropping bombs near entrance while others maintained course and dropped them beyond Ford Island.
RALEIGH Dive bomber attack came in which was met with warm reception. One bomb hit ship a glancing blow going through carpenter shop and oil tank, piercing the skin below water line and finally detonating on bottom of harbor. Plane machine gunned ship also. Steam raised in 3 and 4 firerooms and pumps started. Five bombing planes under fire were observed to crash close aboard.
HONOLULU 5 high altitude bombers 12 to 15,000 feet appeared. 5 high altitude bombers from South, 12 to 15,000 feet. All bombed Pearl Harbor and Ford Island Area.
RIGEL 15 dive bombers 6 to 10 thousand feet from N. attacked DDs and NEVADA.
SOLACE Got underway and shifted from berth X-4, near DOBBIN and destroyers to berth X-13 in the clear. Made boat trips to WEST VIRGINIA to bring back casualties.
DOBBIN Fired upon enemy plane headed astern of ship. Plane crashed upon trees in Navy Yard.
OGLALA Capsized alongside 10-10 dock.
PHOENIX Dive bombing attack on ships berth northern side of Ford Island. Attack was made at about 30 angle, opposed with AA and MG batteries. Expended 20 rounds of 5". One plane disintegrated by DD fire.
PHOENIX Effected periodic fire on planes delivering low-level bombing attack on navy yard and ships berth there.
CUMMINGS Observed twelve scattered planes over Ford Island; air raid resumed. Opened fire with main battery on horizontal bombers approaching over Navy Yard industrial section.
MUGFORD Formation of planes sighted to South. Decks of ARIZONA and W. VA. level with water. Dense smoke pouring from NEVADA.
DOLPHIN Reports another attack from higher altitude.
Outgoing To MIDWAY: Pearl Harbor bombed no indication direction attack take off attempt locate Japanese Forces.
Outgoing To WAKE: Pearl bombed by Japanese be on alert.
CURTISS Obs. 1 of 3 planes pulling out of dive was hit by CURTISS and crashed into #1 crane. Tank exploded and plane burned on Boat Deck.
NARRATIVE OF EVENTS OCCURRING DURING JAPANESE AIR RAID ON 7 DECEMBER
SUMNER Fired on wave of dive bombers approaching Navy Yard. Dive bombers also attacked HICKAM FIELD and BB. No hits, when firing. On latter planes. Observed light dive bomber with conspicuous red tail zig-zag over Navy Yard as if observing casualties at end of phase.
TRACY Attack by approximately 10 dive bombers from direction of the sun, which indicated drydock as objective. Group of 6, 3, and 9 planes observed at altitude of 8 to 10,000 feet. Bomb seen to fall between berths 13 and 15 in slip. TRACY gig damaged by fragmentation; no casualties.
PREBLE Observed about 30 dive bombers make second attack in twin-motored monoplanes. Observed one bomb fall in slip 25 yards on starboard quarter. Observed a bomb fall astern of HONOLULU in berth B-21. Observed numerous bombs fall in vicinity of drydock area.
WHITNEY Observed one Japanese plane fall down in flames on hilltop, bearing northeast, true.
PENNSYLVANIA The second attack coming in slightly on port bow dropped bombs on ships in drydock. One heavy bomb hit the destroyer DOWNES in dock ahead of PENNSYLVANIA, and one hit dock approximately abreast frame 20 while one hit the boat deck of the PENNSYL-
1588 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
VANIA a few feet abaft gun #7. This bomb passed through boat deck and detonated in #5 gun #9 casemate. Fifth bomb believed to have struck water outside of dock. Observed plane crash in hospital grounds Observers claim to have destroyed six enemy planes. Consider two hit by PENNSYLVANIA.
MUGFORD Japanese planes diving on Ford Island from southeast. NEVADA standing down south channel.
PRUITT Observed strafing and light bombing attack, plus heavy horizontal bombing attack from about 10,000 feet made on ships and Ford Island. One bomb hit close to stern of RIGEL.
PENNSYLVANIA Bomb hit on dock and cut yard power, subsequently power on the ship was taken from storage batteries, meanwhile, firemain pressure cut off.
OUTGOING ALL HANDS: Cease firing on B-17's attempting to land at Hickam.
CONYNGHAM Reports one plane attacking on starboard bow shot down by nest and crashed in Pearl City.
Com 14 to ASP Do not fire on our planes coming in.
NEVADA Attack slackened.
MUGFORD Bomb dropped some 400 yards on MUGFORD port bow. Ship in repair basin hit.
PERRY Mine Division FOUR underway at intervals and stood out to take off shore patrol duty.
SecNav to Alnav Execute WPL FORTY SIX against Japan.
Dive bombers attacked ships at Pier 19; bombs fell in water ahead and astern within 2.5 yds. of CUMMINGS.
DOBBIN Attacked by 3 enemy planes. 3 bombs dropped all near misses. Fragments struck stern of ship injuring #4 3" AA gun crew. 3 killed, 2 injured. Damage. Small holes through decks, bulkheads, booms, #1 MWB hull damaged beyond repair.
BLUE Passed channel entrance buoys, and set course 120 true.: Proceeded to sector three to patrol station.
RIGEL 10 to 12 dive bombers from S. attacked ships in Repair Basin with bombs and mach. guns.
PHOENIX Second bombing attack on BB. Expended sixty rounds of 5". After planes came out of dive and turned towards berth C-6, planes were brought under fire of MG battery.
VESTAL Anchored in 35' of water. Soundings and draft readings showed ship settling at and listing to stbd. Draft aft increased to 27' list 6 1/2°. CO VESTAL decided to ground ship.
CURTISS Reports group of planes under heavy fire attacked. During attack one bomb hit stern mooring buoy. 1 fell short, one over one hit ship starboard side of boat deck, passed through Carpenter Shop and Radio Repair Shop, entered Hangar and detonated on Main Deck. Explosion destroyed bulk heads, deck. etc., within radius of 30 feet. Equipment destroyed in Hangar. Handling Room etc. One plane shot down 1000 yards on port bow and l 500 yards on port beam. Another plane shot on port beam landing in water off Pan-Air dock. One plane reported crashed in cane field astern and one forward of ship.
CONYNGHAM Opened fire on horizontal bombers approaching from ahead and from direction of Schofield.
THORNTON Second wave dive bombing attack commenced and ended at 0917. Throughout the entire period there was horizontal bombing in various Pearl Harbor areas.
MUGFORD Horizontal Japanese bombers passed overhead.
PYRO Observed dive bombers approach from port bow, altitude 5,000 feet and release bombs. Bombs landed on concrete dock 12' from ship's side amidships. Penetrated dock exploding underneath and jarring ship.
MUGFORD Heavy black smoke coming from SHAW in floating drydock.
MUGFORD NEVADA stopped south side of south channel.
PREBLE Attack completed. No damage. No casualties sustained by this ship.
Large explosion on DOWNES.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1589
HELM Small enemy fighter approached ship from astern in medium glide and dropped two bombs, which exploded in water about 50 yards off port bow and 20 yards of starboard bow. After machine guns opened fire but did not hit plane. Shock shorted relay to steering (which had just been repaired) and damaged gyro rotor. Choke coils tubes and resistors in sound gear burned out, echo ranging inoperative. Seams below waterline on starboard side forward sprung. A-15, A-301 A-401, and A-402 flooded. These compartments closed off and pumped out during afternoon. FS smoke generators jumped track, breaking air line connection.
Captain Bunkley returned to CALIFORNIA and assumed command.
NEVADA 5" A. A. battery fired on enemy planes to eastward. NEVADA suffered at least 6 bomb hits and one torpedo hit.
MUGFORD Thick black smoke coming from drydock.
TRACY Commanding Officer returned aboard and found 2 .50 cal. mach. guns mounted and ready. 2 dive bombers attacked out of the sun. 1 plane pulling out over sub base and flying low over building 155 crashed in flames in vicinity of hospital point after salvo by CUMMINGS. Plane appeared to be a type 95 dive bomber, planes appeared to be at about 3,000 feet to seaward of Hickam, were 18 planes in formation type V.
PRUITT Observed low flying pursuit planes strafing with machine gun fire on ships moored in the vicinity of Berth 18. Observers on this ship believe many high altitude horizontal bombs either failed to explode or landed outside the harbor area where they could not be observed. An indeterminate number of fighters took part in the raid, with approximately 30 bombers. Approaches were made on a steady course and all horizontal bombing was made in close formation at about 10,000 feet. The four cruisers and light minelayers in the Navy Yard were strafed several times by low flying planes but not a single bomb appeared to have been aimed at those ships. Small caliber fire of minelayers brought down one Japanese plane.
BREESE Cleared nest and proceeded down channel.
CUMMINGS fired on a light bomber. Plane observed smoking heavily as it flew out of sight to southwestward.
HONOLULU Observed low winged dive bombers from South to Southeast, 400 feet pullout. Two bombers bombed industrial and drydock areas. One bomb, (clearly visible on its descent, 250 lbs.), passed through edge of concrete dock, angle of descent 45 , and exploded underwater between ship and dock.
Damage to HONOLULU: Oil tanks various, decks bulged in magazines, various leaks sprung and decks slightly buckled, power lease to turret #2 grounded, turret #1 partially grounded, mercury thrown out of gyros, fore and aft, rangefinders, main battery deranged fore and aft.
More Japanese planes from northwest.
CONYNGHAM Opened fire on plane diving from port side of nest. No personnel or material damage.
PENNSYLVANIA Flooding of drydock commenced. Both destroyers heavily on fire. Fire being transmitted to fire on water and dock which set fire to paint on starboard side of PENNSYLVANIA. No hose available for fighting fire on DOWNES, Available hose being used on CASSIN.
Outgoing ALL HANDS: Reported that enemy ships have red dot on bottom of fuselage.
Outgoing COMBATFOR: To ALL SHIPS PRESENT: Get underway immediately.
MUGFORD PATTERSON standing out.
Outgoing COMBATFOR to COMCRUBATFOR: Cruisers proceed as soon as possible. Landline Send over boats to capsized battleship.
Received COMSUBSCOFOR TO COMSUBDIV 43: Assume service ammunition readiness condition ONE be prepared to attack on information furnished later.
Received Com 14: All planes approaching from Fox George and Easy.
CALIFORNIA plane 205 capsized and sunk while being removed to avoid gasoline fire hazard.
1590 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
WASMUTH Reports second phase of attack as glide bombers and torpedo planes approached from westerly direction. Scored hits on several planes and shot down one plane which crashed on Waipio Peninsula near Middle Loch. This plane should be credited to James Patrick Hannon, seaman first, class, U. S. Navy.
GAMBLE One Japanese plane shot down by AA fire, falling in water on port beam about 1,000 yards away from ship. Believed shot down by ROBERTS, W. L., BM-2c, USS GAMBLE port machine gunner (#2 machine gun) .50 cal., and JOOS, H. W., GM-3c., USS GAMBLE (#1 machine gun) starboard.
MUGFORD White smoke pouring from amidship on ARIZONA.
Outgoing CTF 1: Battleships remain in port until further orders. Send all destroyers to sea and destroy enemy submarines. Follow them by all cruisers to join Halsey.
Unknown Fire at will
Received COM 14: Aircraft coming from Barbers Point 20 or 30 miles. Flash: Enemy planes appear to be massing around Easy. Enemy planes coming from Wheeler Field.
CURTISS After engine room out of commission and evacuated.
Received RDO SAN FRANCISCO to AS: USAT CYNTHIA OLSEN sent distress reports enemy submarine Lat. 33 R 42 N Long 145 R 29 W.
MUGFORD Shot down enemy plane after it pulled out from dive on port bow. Altitude 200 feet. With forward 50 caliber M. G. The plane was a dive bomber.
Received COMAIRBATFOR TO CINCPAC: 220P planes to arrive Pearl about 0820.
MUGFORD OGLALA going over to port. Personnel abandoned ship and getting on dock.
Received COMSUBSCOFOR TO THRESHER, GUDGEON & LITCHFIELD: Assume service ammunition readiness condition ONE x remain in present position x report position.
Received CURTISS TO CINCPAC: Unable to sortie because of damage. After OGLALA sank her crew were pooled out and sent to various units of the Fleet to assist ships in maintaining their batteries.
GAMBLE Got underway and cleared mooring buoy. Reports Division commenced getting underway. USS BREESE underway.
Enemy planes strafed CASTOR and NEOSHO. Detailed men to handle NEOSHO lines astern of CASTOR.
TREVER Underway, standing out of entrance. Observed PERRY fire at submarine and MONAGHAN ramming and dropping depth charge.
TENNESSEE Observed enemy planes coming in on port beam. WEST VIRGINIA gangway still burning.
HELM Shifted steering motor power to diesel generator; regained bridge control of steering.
CALIFORNIA Fire broke out on main deck, starboard side of "F" Division compartment and casemates 3, 5, and 7.
BREESE Lookout reported periscope off Coal Docks but could not be observed from bridge, or picked up by supersonics.
DOBBIN Reports attacks appeared to have been discontinued.
WHITNEY Reports second air attack completed.
PENNSYLVANIA Explosions on destroyers commenced, in floating drydock ahead of PENNSYLVANIA.
WASMUTH Underway following TREVER on orders from Lt. Comdr. L. M. LeHardy, CO ZANE and S. O. P. Mindiv 4.
Received COM 14: Flash: planes coming in from George.
Received RALEIGH TO CINCPAC: Two fire rooms and engine room and stern compt. flooded x damage under control at present x unable to get underway.
Received CHICAGO TO CRUSCOFOR: Japanese submarines reported inside and outside Pearl.
Received ARMY HDQTRS: Flash: Fishing boat l mile off Manakuli.
Received CPW 2 TO CPW 1: We are being attacked by 15 Japanese planes.
CURTISS Fire under control.
WASMUTH Lieut. J. W. Leverton, Jr., USN, Executive Officer, reported aboard and relieved Lt. (jg) J. R. Grey, USN, who had been in command until this time.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1591
Received ARMY HDQTRS REPORTS: Friendly aircraft coming from toward Barbers Point 20 or 30 planes.
GAMBLE Japanese planes attacked near main channel entrance.
MUGFORD Explosion on destroyer ahead of the USS PENNSYLVANIA in drydock.
MUGFORD Japanese subs reported inside and outside of Pearl Harbor.
WASMUTH Lt. Comdr. D. M. Agnew, USN, CO USS TREVER reported aboard. Proceeded out of Pearl Harbor and tool up patrol off entrance.
BAGLEY Ship underway from dock. Material Damage: Broken windows and light globes and glasses on reduction gears causing loss of lubricating oil. Personnel damage 4 men slightly injured.
TENNESSEE Reports wounded being removed from the WEST VIRGINIA. OKLAHOMA upside down. Bow blown away on ARIZONA. Destroyers getting underway on other side of Ford Island. Fire either on ARGONNE or dock. Air attack coming in on starboard bow. WEST VIRGINIA on fire from turret 1 to bow. Flames up as high as foretop. Fire on port quarter (oil on water).
BAGLEY Underway from dock and proceeded around north side Ford Island under belief that other channel was blocked. Because of defective bilge keel, ship was ordered to patrol off shore area and did not accompany Task Force 8. No damage to ship.
NEVADA Grounded off Hospital Point.
PENNSYLVANIA Observed warheads on DOWNES explode covering area with debris. Section of torpedo tube, weighing about 1,000 lbs. Landed on PENNSYLVANIA forecastle. Fire brought under control before serious damage resulted. CASSIN rolled over on DOWNES. It was noted by everyone participating in action that after an hour or more heavy thirst was experienced requiring considerable drinking water. This confirms the necessity of having water at all battle stations.
BREESE Cleared channel entrance with degaussing gear cut in and took station as offshore patrol in section 3.
Received COM 14 to ASP & NAVSHORE ACTIVITIES: brief concentrations reported 25 miles south by south east of Barbers Point x not definite.
MUGFORD BAGLEY underway.
TERN Underway from alongside dock to pick up survivors in harbor. Received 47 survivors.
DEWEY Third wave of attack started by dive bombers. DOBBIN and Desdiv One were target with 3 or 4 planes attacking. One bomb hit close aboard starboard quarter and one hit water between HULL and DEWEY astern. No damage. Guns 1 and 2 firing when not blanked by DOBBIN. It is believed that Desdiv ONE destroyed two planes. Ammunition expended; 76 rounds 5", 1300 rounds .50 cal.
CACHALOT Joined in fire against enemy bombers. No damage received. Nearest enemy bomb dropped 20' off starboard quarter and did not explode. Nearest torpedo passed 100 yards astern.
MUGFORD OGLALA capsized to port.
MUGFORD Japanese planes in from SW low.
MUGFORD HONOLULU underway.
TENNESSEE Observed planes coming in on starboard bow; did not know whether enemy or friendly. Ship will not get underway until further orders Engineering Department, stand by. Destroyer, from Navy Yard, getting underway. Unidentified ship in Pearl Harbor down by stern.
BLUE Good sound contact on submarine. Maneuvered to attack and dropped four depth charges. Regained sound contact on same submarine. Dropped two depth charges. Investigated and observed large oil slick and air bubbles rising to surface. It is felt that this submarine was definitely sunk. Obtained third contact on a submarine that was apparently headed for ST. LOUIS, which was at the time heading out on course approximately 150 true, at high speed. Two depth charges dropped, and upon return noticed large oil slick on surface. It is claimed that one, and possibly two, submarines were sunk.
1592 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
Outgoing Two enemy carriers reported 30 miles southwest Barbers Point, (Sent to CTF 8).
TENNESSEE Reports lighter alongside starboard beam on fire (ammunition lighter, top blown out. Can see no ammunition on it.)
Received COM 14 to ASP: Two planes seen dropping heavy charges off harbor entrance which did not explode; think they are mines.
Outgoing Battleships remain in part probable channel mined.
TENNESSEE. Observed bow of MARYLAND on fire.
Received SOPA SAN DIEGO to ASP HAWAIIAN AREA: Los Angeles Harbor Air Defense Plan Number One effective.
Unknown SIGNAL TOWER The following ships have left Pearl Harbor: DALE, ST. LOUIS, HENLEY, PHELPS, RAMSEY, WASMUTH, PATTERSON, MONTGOMERY.
GAMBLE Temporarily anchored, astern of USS MEDUSA.
TENNESSEE Still playing fire hose on ammunition lighter. Fire seems to under control.
MUGFORD Commenced receiving fuel oil from the yard line. PERRY and GAMBLE standing out.
TENNESSEE Observed SOLACE getting underway.
MUGFORD CALIFORNIA listing to port.
MUGFORD BB's order to remain in port.
TENNESSEE Observed the on bow of MARYLAND. Was under control. Superstructure on WEST VIRGINIA on fire-4 or 5 men trapped, trying to escape by crane. File (oil on water) at stern of TENNESSEE was out. Fire very close to D-310 M.
CUMMINGS Opened fire to repel horizontal bombing attack from the Southward. One horizontal bomber observed to lose its wing. CUMMINGS gun captain #4 claimed a hit.
WHITNEY WHITNEY reports REID and SELFRIDGE underway.
CALIFORNIA Oil fire on surface of water enveloped ship starting many fires, particularly intense one on forecastle. Captain Bunkley, with approval of Commander Battle Force ordered ship to be abandoned temporarily due to enveloping oil fire on surface of water.
TENNESSEE Flood D-310-M (D-306-M and D-312-M also flooded, not isolated).
MUGFORD Japanese planes reported dropping mines in channel.
GAMBLE Underway proceeding out of channel,
FT. SHAFTER Some heavy bombs dropped at entrance of Pearl Harbor did not explode. Think they are mines.
SOPA SAN DIEGO To ASP SAN DIEGO: San Diego Harbor Air Defense Plan Number ONE effective.
MUGFORD USS SHAW in floating dry-dock exploded. Main engines and two boilers of MUGFORD ready to get underway.
TENNESSEE Observed ARIZONA aflame all over.
UNKNOWN To RDO WAILUPE: This vessel and 4 DM in Southwest S2 two enemy carriers in sight. (Rec'd by phone).
REID REID got underway on 4 boilers. No damage or casualties.
PHOENIX Got underway, but returned to Berth C-6 on receiving orders not to sortie.
SUMNER Fired two rounds at bomber on port beam, altitude 8,000—no hits. Also fired .50 caliber machine guns, two and four.
TENNESSEE Observed planes approaching from starboard beam; did not come in.
CPW 2 To DEWT: Report CPW 2 for duty.
MUGFORD USS SCHLEY and ALLEN ready to get underway.
UNKNOWN VP-24 To CPW 2 Eight men of war Lat. 21.10 Long 160. 16 course 090 degrees
UNKNOWN USCG 400 To CG RDO STATION: Report immediately to Commander Honolulu Base.
Com 14 Was Lualualei NAD damaged.
CTF 9 To COMPATRON 21 Search Sector 000 to 300 Japanese Carriers
GAMBLE Shifted .30 cal. A. A. machine guns to top of pilot house on fire control platform.
CINCPAC To CTF 8,12, 3 Search from Pearl very limited account maxiumum twelve VP searching X Some indication enemy force northwest Oahu X Addressees operate as directed Com Task Force 8 to intercept and attack enemy composition enemy force unknown.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1593
CTF 8 Is Ford Island available reservice and rearm carrier planes in case necessity.
TENNESSEE TENNESSEE reports ARIZONA looks as if she is on the bottom. Word passed for the 5th division to lay aft to relieve fire party.
Cincpac To CTF One: Do not send any more cruisers to Sea.
CTG 1.9 To ALL Air Coms Patwing l & 2. Observe approach Doctrine when near Oahu.
MUGFORD USS JARVIS cleared starboard side.
Attack group of 15 VSB's with 1,000 lb. bombs each dispatched to position 30 miles south Barber's Point where numerous reports had been received of enemy carriers and other forces; no contact. CinC informed Comtaskfor EIGHT depended on Pearl Harbor for scouting information. This in order maintain carrier striking group in readiness.
GAMBLE; Cleared channel entrance. Eight depth charges were armed and the ship commenced offshore and anti-submarine patrol off Pearl Harbor entrance.
MUGFORD Navy MT's standing out
WASMUTH dropped one depth charge on suspicious Water, setting 200 feet, results negative.
MUGFORD Floating Dry Dock sinking.
TENNESSEE TENNESSEE reports Torpedo boats leaving harbor.
TENNESSEE TENNESSEE reports people coming from WEST VIRGINIA on board TENNESSEE by way of a five inch gun.
MUGFORD A transport and CUMMINGS underway standing out.
NAS PEARL To CTF 8: Your 2023 Affirmative. (Ref: Is Ford Island available reservice and rearm carrier planes in ease necessity).
PENNSYLVANIA Power on ship taken on two generators.
CASTOR CASTOR Transferred ammunition to NEOSHO for use of that vessel.
ARMY HDQTS Two enemy coming in 30 miles south of Affirm 28.
HENLEY Visual signal from TREVER reported the HENLEY'S captain and executive officer on board that vessel.
BLUE Upon completion of attacks, BLUE screened ST. LOUIS.
SICARD SICARD observed attack break off. Mustered crew, no injuries or casualties.
PHOENIX Got underway and started out north of channel. Received message from TENNESSEE from CINCPAC "Do not Sortie". Turned around in channel and started back to berth C.-6. On receipts of orders from Comcrubatfor proceeded via south channel and completed sortie and joined Comtaskfor ONE.
MUGFORD Fuel oil barge moored starboard quarter.
PENNSYLVANIA Sent motor launches to West Loch for more ammunition.
UNKNOWN This vessel and 4 DM in southwest S2 *NO* enemy carriers in sight.
TENNESSEE TENNESSEE observes ARIZONA abandoning ship. Repair II report all C&R soundings normal. Repair IV report all soundings normal. Pull circuit L28 at aft. Distribution Board. Mr. Teague says hatches cannot be opened from inside wardroom country too hot.
SIGNAL TOWER To CINCPAC: These ships underway but have not cleared the entrance yet: DETROIT—JARVIS—PERRY—NEW ORLEANS—GAMBLE—CHEW.
COMBATSHIPS Be ready to repel repeated air attacks.
CTF 3, CTF 8 To ASP; Submarines reported 10 miles south Barber's point.
TENNESSEE TENNESSEE 6° down by stern from flooding of D-306, D-312 M.
TENNESSEE Unit 2, Repair I, combating fire in W. R. Country. Dead man forward of conning tower, sent stretcher party.
WASMUTH Dropped second depth charge on suspicious water, setting 200 feet, bearing 217°, distance 3.4 miles from Pearl Harbor entrance buoys. Brought up large quantities of oil, but no wreckage.
YUNE 8 bearing (BILATERAL) 357° or 178° T from HEEIA. YUNE 8 is Comcardivs (AKAGI).
1594 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
Comdesron 3 Underway accordance signal from tower, and oral orders. Joined antisub patrol operating off entrance. Made two Sound contacts, dropped 3 and 2 depth charges. Oil observed on water but no conclusive evidence of submarine loss.
COMBASEFOR To Cominron 2: Sweep South channel from East Loch to entrance magnetic and moored mines.
MUGFORD Commenced receiving fuel from oil barge in addition to oil from yard line.
TRACY TRACY reported CUMMINGS underway after returning all TRACY men, 10 men sent to help fight fire in CALIFORNIA.
Combatfor To Cap't NYD: The CALIFORNIA is on fire inside. Probably two tugs with fire equipment could save her.
DOWNES Fire on CASSIN brought under control.
COMBATSHIPS To BATSHIPS IN COMPANY: All battleships sent pilots and aviation personnel to Ford Island immediately.
CTF 8 DF bearings indicate enemy carrier bearing 178 from Barber's point
TENNESSEE To CINCPAC: TENNESSEE 30% damage CALIFORNIA has been sunk. Doubtful checking.
TERN Proceeded to put out fire on USS ARIZONA. Shifted over to WEST VIRGINIA by orders from MARYLAND.
CPW 1 To Plane 2 VP 14: Search sector 310 to 320. Take due caution.
Unknown CTF 8 To CINCPAC: CINCPAC 2012 Acknowledge.
MINNEAPOLIS To CINCPAC: MINNEAPOLIS center area VICTOR ONE.
CTF 8 To CINCPAC: Am depending on Pearl for scouting information.
CTF 8 CTF 8 launched six VOS to search sector O00-045 to 150 miles.
SUMNER Fired two rounds 3" at plane dead ahead, altitude 8,000. No hits. Fired all 50 caliber.
MUGFORD Japanese planes attacking from North. (Note: These are apparently friendly planes).
MUGFORD Numerous explosions from WEST VIRGINIA and ARIZONA.
TENNESSEE Observed Naval Air Station planes in air.
PATRON 23 To CPW ONE: Investigating suspicious vessel 21 00, 150 50.
TRACY Japanese have definitely withdrawn.
COM 14 TO NAS PEARL, CPW 2: Hawaiian Air Force contemplates moving headquarters, MUX lines will be kept in commission.
UNKNOWN COMBASEFOR, C0MINRON TWO to COM 14: Sweep South channel from East Loch to entrance magnetic and moored mines.
TENNESSEE Repair II told to open drain valve and core valve in GSK, Valves to Sick Bay. Enemy plane coming in on bow. All hands not engaged in fighting fire seek cover.
HELM Sound listening watch heard screws on starboard quarter. Ship circled for attack but lost control. No depth charges dropped.
SICARD Observed horizontal bombing attack.
MUGFORD Fire appeared to be under control on NEVADA.
TENNESSEE Observed destroyer putting to sea (other side of Ford Island). Gasoline stowage filled with C02.
VP 23 #11 To CPW2: Ships investigated 2 subs unknown nationality course 271 submerged on my approach.
NAS Kaneohe To CINCPAC: Ship nationality unknown 10 miles off Kahana Point.
To ASP, Info CTF 8 All ships departing Pearl organize as TASKFORCE ONE UNDIVIDED Comdesbatfor assume command report CTF 8.
To ASP this Circuit: Enemy planes coming for Pearl Harbor from South.
BREESE Received reports Motor Torpedo Boat sighted periscope
ST. LOUIS To CINCPAC: Formed attack group ST. LOUIS, LAMSON, PHELPS, I am proceeding to locate ENEMY.
CPW 2 To PATRON 23 Empty tanker no guns showing identity unknown lat. 21 00 Long. 259 59.
NYD OPERATIONS To CINCPAC: NYD Operations reports another air raid expected within twenty minutes.
SICARD Observed horizontal diving attack completed.
NORTHAMPTON Two NORTHAMPTON planes launched to conduct search 150 miles to the north.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1595
BREESE BREESE dropped 2 depth charges on spot indicated with no apparent results. Bearings: Barber's Point 297° (t),and Hickam Tower
NAS Kaneohe Bay to CINCPAC: Ship nationality unknown 10 miles off Kahana Point.
TENNESSEE 2° list to port.
TENNESSEE To CINCPAC: Damage 00% to TENNESSEE: WEST VIRGINIA sunk. Note: Correction WEST VIRGINIA for CALIFORNIA. Correction 00% instead of 30% for TENNESSEE.
SUMNER Fired four rounds 3" at plane crossing ahead from starboard, altitude 6,000 feet, no hits. Fired 50 caliber machine guns No. 1 and 2.
CPW 2 To VP 14 #1, VP 14 #3: STAY OUT.
WHITNEY Received orders to remained at anchor.
HENLEY Picked up captain and executive officer from TREVER. No losses or damage experienced by HENLEY.
PATRON 24, CPW 2 to CPW 2, CTF 3: Eight men of war Lat. 21 10, Long. 160 16, course 090 degrees.
TENNESSEE Bridge steering telegraph out (being repaired). Sending planes from Hickam Field.
MUGFORD Horizontal bombers approaching from port (Jap.)
ST. LOUIS To COMDESRON 1: What is your position?
SICARD Observed another horizontal bombing raid.
SICARD Observed bombers withdrawed. No material damaged and no personnel casualties.
SUMNER Fired 11 rounds 3" at formation of five bombers crossing ahead from port no hits. Fired all machine guns.
CSD 43 To Comsubscofor: Point 21 54—Point 56 12.
TENNESSEE Sighted two planes bearing 270°.
BREESE Picked up sound of submarine in same vicinity. Dropped 2 depth charges and oil slick with debris appeared, 2nd attack was made with 4 deep-set charges to make certain but no additional results appeared. Meanwhile destroyers in vicinity dropped additional charges.
NORTHAMPTON Approximately 15 miles west of Kauai. Section attacked by enemy single seat monoplane, engagement lasting about 20 minutes. Enemy plane made total of seven attacks diving from above or to the side of the scouting section. On all diving attacks presented and exceptionally good target as he squashed down toward the section. Apparent enemy speed 275 miles or better. Enemy plane broke out in smoke and departed. Search continued until completed.
MUGFORD U. S. Navy planes taking off from Ford Island.
TENNESSEE Observed light cruiser putting out to sea. Turning engines over to keep fire on water away from ship.
COMBATSHIP 3 To CTF 1: MINNEAPOLIS 2 DMs center southern boundary VICTOR ONE Course 105 speed 15/UKX CAB6.
CTF 9 To VP 24 Planes #1, #2, #4, #5, #11, CPW2: Search to 200 miles.
CTF 8 To CINCPAC: TF 8 flying colors bearing 184 distance 99 from Kaula Rock at 1115.
MUGFORD Japanese Planes on starboard beam.
RDO Wailupe To all stations this circuit: Guam attacked
DESBATFOR To CTF 8: Int posit desig zero george eight.
NORTHAMPTON NORTHAMPTON plane engaged enemy fighter. This was not known to Comtaskfor 8 until 8 December.
COMBATFOR To COMBATSHIPS Prepare available battleship planes for search and report to subbase when ready and number. 2 CALIFORNIA planes at Ford Island probably ready.
COM 14 To CINCPAC: Submarine due south Aloha Tower 4 miles has been bombed. Surface covered with oil slick.
COMBASEFOR To COMINRON 2: Designate two DMs sweep approaches to Pearl magnetic mines.
COMCRUBATFOR To CINCPAC: Have no ships in sector 4.
ANTARES moored to B-5A Honolulu.
PATWING To Unknown: Enemy troops landing on north shore. Blue coveralls with red emblems.
COM 14 To CINCPAC: Parachutists are landing at Barber's Point.
CPW 1 To Cincpac, CPW2: 3 planes security patrol patrol 14 are searching assigned sector. All planes have depth charges aboard.
1596 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
COMCARDIV 1 To Cincpac: SARATOGA ready depart San Diego 0900 tomorrow Monday mx escorting ships so far as known have not been designated. Request instructions.
To ASP: All cruisers and destroyers depart Pearl as soon as practicable x report CTF 1 in DETROIT.
TENNESSEE Observed Army fortresses in the air. Believe enemy planes and submarines lying in channel.
MUGFORD The end of period during which ship maintained 50 caliber and 5" fire.
Location of Forces 1200, 7 December 1941: T. F. 8 ENTERPRISE 21-30 160-55; T. F. 12 LEXINGTON. 23-50, 171-15; Subdiv 43 (3 SS), 80 Miles East, coming ready; GUDGEON C-5, Ready; T. F. 1 and 2 less 8 in Pearl; T. F. 3 less 12, areas; Task F 3 rendezvousing with MINNEAPOLIS and 20 Ms southern boundary VI Course 1:15.
GWIN To Comdesbatfor Reporting for duty with LAMSON and PHELPS I am proceeding to South to locate and attack enemy carrier
BOBOLINK Received Orders from Combasefor to sweep Pearl Harbor with TURKEY.
ST. LOUIS To Comcruscofor: Reporting for duty with LAMSON and PHELPS. I am proceeding south to locate and attack enemy carrier.
Compatwing To Compatron 24: Have search for assign sector 300 miles am returning.
CTF 8 To CINCPAC: Your 2100 refers Task Force 8 with 13 ships X request all units be notified.
GAMBLE Established sound contact with submarine and dropped three depth charges. Position bearing 168 T from Diamond Head light, distance 2.6 miles.
MUGFORD Discontinued fueling. 115000 gallons on board.
Comdesbatfor to Comdesflot ONE: About nine thirty witnessed MONAGHAN sink enemy submarine by ramming and depth charges. Excellent piece of work.
SIGNAL TOWER About 0930 witnessed MONAGHAN sink enemy sub. by ramming and depth charges. Excellent piece of work. Believe RALEIGH accounted for three planes.
Com 11 To KENNISON: Submarine reported twenty miles bearing 235 from Pt. Loma investigate.
Com 14 All lights extinguished except control lights.
MUGFORD. Oil barge cleared starboard side.
COMBATSHIPS To CINCPAC: Design cast desig king baker jib.
COMBATSHIPS To Cruisers and Destroyers: Sortie in accordance until plan indicated.
TENNESSEE Draft of ship (internal): Fwd. 34' 6, Aft, 35' 10 1/4; Mean 35' 4 l/2". Enemy transport reported 40 miles off Barber's Point. Parachute troops landing on Barber's Point later proved false). After Battle Dressing Station send stretcher party to left gun, turret III, and remove casualties. Three planes on starboard beam coming this way (do not know whether enemy or not) Said planes flying low; apparently, turning away. Organize a crew of about 30 men to relieve men of Turret IV who are fighting fire on water.
SOLACE To Com 14: Expedite your boat all tannic acid, tannic acid jelly, pecric acid, tetanus anti-toxin, gas gangrene combined serum morphine sulphate, morphine syretts, sutures, needles, hypo needles and adhesive tape can be spared.
MUGFORD Underway. Standing out in channel.
HELM Rejoined DETROIT. Ceased patrolling.
CTF 9 To PW 2l,23,19: Search to 300 miles.
RDO WAILUPE To all stations: Nine unidentified aircraft over-Guam.
BOBOLINK Moored alongside coal dock to take wire aboard.
CINCPAC To ASP Hawaiian Area: If NPM fox goes out guard harbor circuit.
Combatships To Cincpac: PENNSYLVANIA Dive bomb hit starboard side frame 86 drydock now flooded. MARYLAND magazines flooded. TENNESSEE fire in wardroom country. OKLAHOMA capsized. WEST VIRGINIA sunk but upright. CALIFORNIA down by the head and heavy list to port probably on bottom. ARIZONA sunk. NEVADA beached off Hospital Point.
Unknown CPW 2 To VP 23: Search to 200 miles any instructions.
SIGNAL TOWER THORNTON is underway and standing up.
CURTISS To Cincpac. Unable to sortie because of damage.
MUGFORD Japanese plane crashed on beach of HICKAM FIELD. (Note: It is believed the ship observed this at this time (wreckage), not that the crash occurred at this time.
SIGNAL TOWER These ships have cleared Pearl Harbor Channel: DALE, HANLEY, PATTERSON. PHOENIX, WASMUTH, RAMSAY, ST. LOUIS, DETROIT, MONTGOMERY, WORDEN, CUMMINGS.
Combatships To Com 14 Serious oil fire alongside W. VA. menaces TENNESSEE and MARYLAND send fire boats.
CTF 8 To Cincpac: 21 VSB from ENTERPRISE should have landed Ford Island about 0830. Request information.
RDO Wailupe To ASP: Air alarm standby.
TENNESSEE Secure all fresh water, except galley and drinking.
----- While GAMBLE conducting depth charge attack off Diamond Head, received three despatches from CinC addressed to ASP. Ships ordered to attack transports reported four miles off Barber's Point. All vessels having departed Pearl Harbor organized as Task Force ONE to report to CTF 8 clearing harbor and to report position, composition, and speed. GAMBLE continued with depth charge attack until contact was lost then proceeded to Barber's Point where no transports were found. Continued westward.
CINCPAC To ASP: Enemy transport s reported four miles off Barbers Point. Attack.
CTF 12 To CTF 3 & 8: Cancel Midway Marine flight.
MU" HE SARA HAHO On 4780 BRG 186 (Believed Submarine).
MU" HE SARA HAHO on 4580 BRG 181 (Believed Submarine).
KANURE Appears to be O.T.C. on 6581 BRG. 183.
SISO On 7033 BRG 167l/2.
KASO Seems to be Task Force Commander.
KANURE is probably Commander in the Air.
CTF 12 To Cincpac: Is Midway flight canceled.
MUGFORD Passed entrance to channel. Four 50 cal. and four 5"/38 cal guns during the entire period 0809 to 1159 whenever any planes came within range and bearing maintained fire.
COMBATSHIPS To Combatfor: Combatship in Maryland.
RALEIGH To Cincpac: Two fire rooms and engine room and stern compt. flooded. Damage under control at present. Unable to get underway.
Plane 12 VP 23 Two CPW2: Approaching 300 able to search more gas 400 25 I request instructions.
TENNESSEE Planes on port bow (do not know whether enemy or not).
---- CALIFORNIA sinking fast, stern underwater. Close all topside hatches, as turrets will be fired. (Did not). Gun four port reported Hoist #22, 5"/51, in B-510 was damaged. Power can be sent up, but is slowed. Draft of ship, FWD: 34'9". Magazine temperature of Turret I-84°.
WP OFF. 14ND High altitude bombing attack coming in over Diamond Head.
Unknown Cincpac To Rdo San Diego: Receive me on 26.1, transmit on 30.6 (cable to Navy radio San Diego) Via Globe.
CURTISS To CPW2: All of our transmitters are out.
Combatships To COLORADO: If vessels are not longer in service will furnish men and officers to ships in service to man complete anti-aircraft batteries for continuous watch.
Combasefor To Cominron TWO: Designate two DMs sweep approach to Pearl magnetic mines.
GAMBLE Proceeded on course 270T at 20 knots to join friendly forces upon receipt of orders from Cincpac.
ST. LOUIS To Comdesbatfor: ST. LOUIS, BLUE, LAMSON, PHELPS posit Lat 20.51 Long 158, course 275, speed 25K.
Unknown Cincpac To CTF 8: Your 2208 Only nine arrived.
MTB SQUAD Out guarding 3445 voice sqdn. Comdrs. PT 20 PT 22, PT 23, PT 24 At dock guarding 3445 voice PT 21. On dock at crane no power PT 26, PT 28. Aboard RAMAPO underway PT 27, PT 29, PT 30, PT 42.
1598 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
Com 14 Four Japanese transports off Barbers Point.
RALEIGH Reports tugs SUNNADIN and AVOCET came alongside and furnished light and power. One torpedo ran between bow of RALEIGH and stern of DETROIT, and apparently sank in shoal water at Ford Island without exploding. The following planes were destroyed, in which it is considered the RALEIGH contributed:
1. Bomber flying over stern stbd to port crashed on deck of CURTISS.
2. Plane flew over bow from stbd to port and crashed near Pear City.
3. Plane flying north on our stbd beam crashed in water between DOBBIN and BALTIMORE.
4. Plane off our stern flying over Air Station was hit by 3" shell and blown to pieces in air.
5. Plane flying across our stern had tail blown off and fell Over Pearl City.
Comdesbatfor Own DD reports no enemy vessels off Barbers Point.
CTF 1 At 1300 join DETROIT course 210 n speed 18 from point 51. (Action to ST. LOUIS)
RAMSAY Jap ship four miles from Barbers Point Two sampans further out. Parachute troops landing on North Shore. (Reported by VJ plane.)
CPW 2 Search sector 220 to 230. Return (Action to 12-VP-23)
Unknown Comtrainron 8 ANTARES docked pier five afirm, Honolulu. Struck by several machine gun bullets but no damage to material or personnel.
Cincpac To CTF 8: Radio bearings indicate AKAGI bearing 183 from Pearl another unit bearing 167°.
CPW 2 To comscoron 6: Reported Jap rendezvous 223° 9O miles from Ford Island. Search to 200 miles sector 235 to 215.
NAS Kaneohe Captured enemy chart has marked positions bearing 223° distant 90 miles from Pearl Harbor.
Signal Tower DETROIT and PHOENIX are near Barbers Point. Signal Tower sees no transports.
Combasefor To comtrainron 6; Com 14, Cominron 2: Sweep channel from East Loch to entrance magnetic and Moored mines.
HULBERT Army reports that four enemy transports off Barbers Point.
ST LOUIS Am proceeding with three destroyers to attack Barbers Point Speed two five position lat. 21-57 long 150-03.
Combatships To NAS Pearl: for Capt. Bode CALIFORNIA urgently needs AA ammunition.
Rdo Wailupe Signals intercepted and bearing true north believed to be enemy carrier by character of transmission.
FRANK By phone: Enemy sampan about to land at Naval ammunition Depot.
FRANK Enemy landing party off shore Nanakul. Friendly planes firing at them.
FRANK Op-1 Southeast enemy and friendly planes in dogfight.
------ Enemy naval attack coming in towards Barbers Point. Present position nine miles.
Opnav To Mardet Tientsin. Com 15, Mardet AM Emb, Peiping Astnavatt Shanghai, Rdo Wake, Navatt Chungking, Johnston Is, Rdo Guam, Palmyra, Com 16, Rdo Tutuila, HOPKINS: This confirms air raid by Japan on Oahu at 1800 today followed by declaration of war by Japan against US and Great Britain.
HELENA To Comcrubatfor: Due contamination feed water cannot maintain underway status longer than 8 hours. During this time speed limited to 10 kts. Ready this condition on one hour notice F power for fire control limited to two diesel generators. View condition and to effect repairs recommend letting fires under all boilers die out.
CTF 8: UPSN Junction Task Force One and Eight. Propose send Crudiv FIVE to Pearl for fuel.
MINNEAPOLIS Your 072234 (CincPacs) complying. Ref. # 12-299 Use plane to search sector 135 to 180 distance 154 miles from Pearl.
CINCPAC To CTF 8: DETROIT, PHOENIX, ST LOUIS, NEW ORLEANS fourteen destroyers and four minelayers have sortied and are proceeding to join you. Also MINNEAPOLIS and four minelayers ordered join from operating areas send ships to Pearl for fuel.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1599
BOBOLINK's orders to sweep channel changed to sweeping approaches to Pearl Harbor and Honolulu Harbor. Arriving off Pearl it appeared all ships there were engaged in sweeping.
CTF 1 To Cincpac: Task Force ONE: proceeding off Barbers Point Notify Army.
CPW 1 To CPW 2: Request instructions for dawn patrol upon their return.
CTF 3 To CTF 2: My force INDIANAPOLIS and 5 DMs INDIANAPOLIS proceeding from JOHNSTON Island course 054 speed 25. Dog Mike Sail directed proceed Pearl for fuel and rejoin later.
TENNESSEE Plane coming in on starboard beam. (Proved to be friendly).
CTF 8 launched 9 VSB's to cover sector 110-200T to 175 miles. One of latter reported contact with surface forces believed enemy including a carrier in position Lat 20-32 Long 158-16 and cruiser Lat 20-32 Long 158-40. Scout reported being attacked by VF's. No further radio contact established with scout. Scout landed later at Kaneohe, reports believed to have been in error.
VIREO Received orders to report to Combasefor thence to West Loch to bring up 5", 3" and .50 M. G. ammunition for CALIFORNIA.
Reports 7632 kcs (M) following calls: SIME; SISC: DASCHO: SUREMO, SAMORE, Sends following type of ... 095.45 086.42
Bearing on SISC 170 85
Bearing on SAMORE 165
Reports following mag ... KISC to SIME Nr. 1 SIME 354. 56
Reports SOSC Good bearing 7632 (M) 337.
Reports SISC calling SAMORE. S5 bearing 337. Very loud signal
Reports bearing SAMEMU bearing 337.
Following bearings: 7632 kcs (M) 0036-SUSU S5 340-7632 (M) 0040 SIME 336
Following bearings: 7632 (M) 005-bearing SISC 338 S.5 7050 (M) 0055 bearing SISC 33S.5 S.5
KANURE KANURE sez at 1235 (local Time) "I HAVE FUEL FOR 10 MINUTES"
KANURE at 1240 "I WILL FLY AS LONG AS I HAVE FUEL"
Someone on 7033 at 1247 said "HAVE NOT BE OPPOSED"
SAME FREQUENCY BELIEVE SINIRE FROM "SISC" at 1250
"WHAT IS YOUR COURSE".
RUS18 and YUNE8 believed to be Commander Carrier
SUT12 believed to be a Carrier.
SISORE is either another Comdr in the Air or Comdr Transport Group 1.
SISO is Boss of SISORE.
No further bearings of radio intelligence of the Striking Force until following day 8 December 1941.
SIME 010.01 I HA NKIARIYA
2 HA NKIARI
BEARINGS SAREMU 338 S.4 on 7632 kcs (M)
WASMUTH rigs twin ship moored minesweep with USS ZANE, 400 fathoms of wire between ships, depressors at 5 fathoms, no floats. At 1547 entered Pearl Harbor entrance channel and sweep up channel to gate vessel, where wire parted. At 1620 anchored off Coal Dock and retrieved sweep gear. At l628 underway. At 1635 the Captain returned aboard, Lieutenant Commander Agnew, USN, left and joined TREVER. Returned off harbor entrance and resumed patrol in company with Mindiv 4.
GAMBLE Sighted sampan bearing 32° T.
TENNESSEE Set condition ZED from Turret III, second deck, aft. Repair I, Unit 2, leading out fire hose to play water on WEST VIRGINIA. Received report that one of our destroyers sank Jap submarine.
BOBOLINK Passed sweep wire to TURKEY and commenced sweeping off Honolulu Harbor.
1600 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
GAMBLE Slowed to investigate but did not search, sampan position, approximately 4 miles south of Barbers Point.
VIREO While waiting for arrival of ammunition, towed ammunition lighter with 14" powder away from dock to decrease menace to explosion. Delivered ammunition to ARGONNE.
TENNESSEE Report states that Wake Island had been bombed by 30 bombers. Ens. Kable still alive, Hudgell dead: also Miller and Adams.
MIDWAY 1600 Via commercial Cable ......."on 7073 _ _ _ _ _ SISO 2-16 ...... Fair ____ SIME 245 Poor NAS Midway." Plane language : SASO V SAREMI #3 ............... A FU"KUMA YORI 150 to "30 MAIRU NEN 200 1115 .....................
DEWEY Underway and standing out of harbor.
BOBOLINK Received orders from Commander Base Force to report 1010 dock immediately.
TENNESSEE Repair 4 All outboard voids normal. All soundings normal. Received report that PENNSYLVANIA had been hit while in drydock. No. 2 machine gun repaired and in commission again.
------ CTF 12 given orders by CTF 8 to intercept and destroy possible enemy carriers operating south coast of Oahu. It was assumed after attacks enemy carriers would withdraw via Jaluit.
GAMBLE Sighted smoke bomb off port bow.
TENNESSEE Open up wardroom country and sleepy hollow. Fire on WEST VIRGINIA seems to be under control. Repair I cut off # 32 vent system; smoke coming down.
------ Task Force ONE just ordered by CTF 8 proceed and attack.
GAMBLE Reports submarine surfaced.
GAMBLE Fired one shot 4" gun and missed, short and to the left. Submarine displayed U. S. colors, and ceased firing. Submarine submerged and fired recognition red smoke bomb.
BOBOLINK While off dock 1010 received orders to assist NEVADA. Orders changed to go alongside CALIFORNIA.
Attack group of 16 VF, 18 VTB's and 4 VSB smokers launched by Comtaskforce EIGHT with no results. (VTB planes armed with torpedoes recovered after dark.) Six VF planes proceeded Pearl mistaken for unfriendly and four shot down.
GAMBLE Proceeded West.
TENNESSEE Told forward battle dressing station to send doctor and stretcher party to WEST VIRGINIA bridge to get Captain. Ship astern (ARIZONA) blew up. Two planes bearing 350°.
WHITNEY Reports CASE left from alongside.
TENNESSEE Engines ahead 1/3. Repairs 2 and 4; send 2 rescue breathers each, and spare oxygen bottles to starboard side of WEST VIRGINIA quarterdeck.
TENNESSEE Word received to stop main engines. Delivered 6 gas masks to WEST VIRGINIA.
WHITNEY Reports TUCKER left from alongside.
BOBOLINK Moored alongside WIDGEON next to CALIFORNIA for salvage purposes.
GAMBLE Sighted ENTERPRISE and exchanged calls. Instructed by Commander Aircraft. Battle Force to join ENTERPRISE.
------ Comairbatfor ordered GAMBLE to join that vessel as part of AS Screen.
BOBOLINK Commenced pumping to continue through the night.
GAMBLE Joined ENTERPRISE and took station as third ship with two other plane guard destroyers.
PELIAS Moored at Berths S-11 and 12, Submarine Base, reports first attack was indicated by sound of machine gun fire directed at single engine Jap torpedo plane flying low over ship's bow. The plane launched a torpedo at ARIZONA which soon later burst into flames.
TENNESSEE Plane bearing 345. Plane signaled with red light; did not understand meaning of signal.
PENNSYLVANIA Reports complete replacement of ammunition effected.
TENNESSEE Observed plane bearing about 300.
TENNESSEE Plane bearing about 345 (Running lights on; believed friendly).
TENNESSEE Plane on port beam; running lights on.
TENNESSEE Plane coming in from dead ahead; bright lights on it.
TENNESSEE Plane bearing about 245.
TENNESSEE ENTERPRISE planes approaching Oahu.
TENNESSEE Plane bearing from dead ahead; running lights burning.
TENNESSEE Word passed over loudspeaker "All men having hammocks in port hammock nettings remove them, and stow same inboard "
TRACY Reports friendly planes with running lights were by AA batteries, but TRACY did not fire.
TRACY Moored alongside CALIFORNIA and commenced salvage work.
SICARD Observed 3 lighted planes, altitude 5000 approaching FORD ISLAND from South NEW ORLEANS Challenged without success and opened. Other ships followed too. SICARD checked fire considering planes were friendly. Other ships continued firing.
VIREO Observed AA fire opened and planes shot down. Aviator fell astern of VIREO, was rescued and identified from ENTERPRISE. Dispatch was sent to inform control that ENTERPRISE planes were in air.
Cincpac File No.
UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET,
USS PENNSYLVANIA, Flagship
PEARL HARBOR, T. H., December 12, 1941
From: Commander-in-Chief, United States Pacific Fleet.
To: The Chief of Naval Operations.
Subject: Damage to Ships of the Pacific Fleet resulting from Enemy Attacks at Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941.
(a) Cincpac Secret Desp. 072244 of December 1941.
(b) Cincpac Secret Desp. 081015 of December 1941.
(c) Cincpac Secret Desp. 100220 of December 1941.
(d) Cincpac Secret Desp. 102043 of December 1941.
1. The following report relative to damage sustained by ships of the Pacific Fleet resulting from enemy attacks on 7 December 1941 is submitted. This amplifies reports submitted by references (a) to (d) inclusive:
ARIZONA sunk at berth as result of aircraft torpedoes and heavy bombs which exploded forward magazines. Ship is considered to be a total wreck.
CALIFORNIA sunk at berth as a result of hits by two or more aircraft torpedoes; also received one large bomb hit amidships which caused serious fire. Recommendations regarding salvage and repairs will be forwarded later.
NEVADA damaged by heavy bombs, possible mine in the channel and aircraft torpedoes. Beached across from hospital point to prevent sinking after an attempt to sortie. Batteries intact and manned though no power is on the ship. Recommendations regarding salvage and repairs will be made later.
OKLAHOMA capsized at berth as a result of receiving three or more hits by aircraft torpedoes. Recommendations regarding salvage will be made later.
PENNSYLVANIA slightly damaged by bomb hit, starboard side of boat deck while in drydock number 1, Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor. Repairs have been completed and ship is ready for service.
 MARYLAND damaged by bomb hit on forecastle and near miss. Ship was moved to the Navy Yard on 11 December and is expected to be fully ready for service 13 December.
TENNESSEE received one heavy bomb through turret top which did not explode, but put 2 rammers out of commission. Also one bomb hit aft which cracked one 14" gun. Heat from the ARIZONA fire melted and ignited paint in after portion of the second deck which was badly burned out. Ship is now heavily wedged to mooring by reason of the WEST VIRGINIA leaning against her. Steps are being taken to dynamite the mooring to permit the removal of the TENNESSEE. Repairs are proceeding and it is estimated that by 14 December ship will be ready for service less one 14" gun.
1602 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
WEST VIRGINIA sunk at berth as result of four aircraft torpedoes and one bomb hit. There is considerable damage from fire. Recommendations regarding salvage and repairs will be made later.
HELENA damaged by bomb hit from frame 30, starboard side, opening up side under armor belt for distance of about 50 feet. Number one and two fire rooms and forward engine rooms flooded. Ship is now in drydock #2, Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor to effect repairs to make seaworthy. It is estimated that new shell and framing will be completed within two weeks and ship will be able to operate with two shafts and with all gun batteries in commission. It is recommended that ship proceed to Mare Island for completion of repairs to hull and machinery.
HONOLULU damaged by near miss at approximately frame 40 port side. Hole approximately 20 feet by 6 feet underwater. Ship being docked in drydock #1 today and it is estimated that work will be completed to make her fully effective by 16 December.
 RALEIGH damaged by one aircraft torpedo which flooded forward half of machinery plant. Also hit by small bomb forward which penetrated three decks and went out ships' side and did not explode. It is proposed to dock the RALEIGH following completion of the HONOLULU to effect underwater repairs to make seaworthy. Recommendations as to whether all repairs to make the ship fully serviceable should be undertaken at Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor or a mainland navy yard, will be forwarded later.
CASSIN and DOWNES damaged by bomb in number one drydock, Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor ahead of PENNSYLVANIA. Bomb hit DOWNES exploding her torpedoes warheads and causing serious oil fire. CASSIN was damaged by fire and was knocked off drydock blocking and fell over on DOWNES. DOWNES appears to be total loss except for salvageable parts and materials. Recommendations regarding salvage and repairs to CASSIN will be forwarded later.
SHAW hit by bomb while docking on floating drydock. Forward part of ship and floating drydock badly damaged by fire resulting from oil and powder. After part of ship not seriously damaged. Recommendations regarding repairs will be forwarded later.
(d) Auxiliary vessels.
OGLALA sunk by aircraft torpedo and near miss by bomb at ten-ten dock at Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor. Recommendations regarding salvage and repairs will be forwarded at a later date.
UTAH damaged and capsized as a result of hits by aircraft torpedoes. Recommendations regarding salvage and repairs will be forwarded later.
CURTISS damaged by enemy plane out of control which flew into crane mast and by bomb which exploded damaging hangar space causing fire which destroyed all radio equipment. Ship is entirely seaworthy. Repairs are  proceeding and ship will be ready for operations less one amidships crane by 15 December.
VESTAL damaged by a bomb hit aft while at berth at Pearl Harbor, is undertaking repairs with own repair force. It is estimated that the ship will be fully ready as a repair ship by 17 December. Docking may not be required.
2. It is believed that the sinking of the OKLAHOMA, NEVADA, CALIFORNIA and WEST VIRGINIA is in large part due to the ships having been in condition X-RAY. Had time been available to set condition ZED before receiving damage, progressive flooding might have been avoided.
H. E. KIMMEL
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1603
 Cincpac File No.
UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET
USS PENNSYLVANIA, Flagship
PEARL HARBOR, T. H., December 21, 1941.
Summary of damage sustained by ships of Pacific Fleet from enemy attacks at Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941
Damage incurred and cause
Repairs proceeding and proposed
Sunk at berth. Aircraft torpedoes and heavy bombs exploding forward magazines.
Propose caisson the ship and make recommendation thereafter.
Sunk at berth. Two or more aircraft torpedoes and one large bomb hit amidships causing fire. Part of A. A. Battery still manned and available.
Propose caisson ships, repair to make watertight and return to
mainland for complete repairs. (Tow.)
Bomb hit frame 14, penetrated and exploded, holing shell, decks and bulkheads forward of fr. 24.
NYPH repairing shell to make seaworthy. Decks, bulkheads to be completed at NYPS.
Heavy bombs, aircraft torpedoes and possibly a mine in channel. Beached across from Hospital Pt. A. A. batteries still manned and available.
Propose float ship (caisson may not be required), repair to make watertight and return to mainland yard for complete repairs. (Tow.)
Capsized at berth. Three or more aircraft torpedoes.
Propose right and float ship, (caisson may not be required) repair to make watertight and return to mainland yard for complete repairs. (Tow.)
Bomb hit starboard side boat deck.
One heavy bomb (dud) through turret top. One medium bomb aft cracked 14" gun. Fire aft 2nd deck due to heat from ARIZONA. Electrical circuits 2nd deck aft damaged by fire.
NYPH repairing shell to make seaworthy and habitable. NYPS complete habilitation, renew 14" gun, and watertight integrity.
Sunk at berth. Four aircraft torpedoes and one heavy bomb hit. Considerable damage by fire.
Propose caisson ship. Repair to make watertight and return to mainland for complete repairs. (Tow)
Forward fire and enginerooms flooded by aircraft torpedo. Some machinery badly damaged.
NYPH repairing shell to make seaworthy. Propose return to NYMI for complete repairs. (On two shafts).
Bomb. Near miss frame 40, port. Flooded five magazines and handling room II turret. Damaged electrical circuits in flooded spaces.
NYPH proceeding with complete repairs.
One aircraft torpedo, and small bomb (dud) which penetrated three decks and ship's side aft. Forward engineroom and forward firerooms flooded and damaged.
NYPH to make repairs to make seaworthy when HONOLULU is undocked. Propose return to NYMI (on 2 shafts) for complete repairs
Drydock No. 1 ahead of PENNSYLVANIA. Bomb hit DOWNES exploding her torpedo warheads and causing serious fire. CASSIN knocked off blocks and fell over on DOWNES
Propose upright, patch and float out CASSIN for possible repairs to return to full or limited service. Further recommendations later.
Bombed while docked on floating drydock. Forward part of ship and floating dock badly damaged.
Propose float and reconstruct forward part return to mainland yard for complete repairs, possibly under own power.
Sunk by aircraft torpedo and possibly near miss by bomb.
Salvage doubtful. Recommendation later.
Capsized and sunk by aircraft torpedoes.
Recommendations re salvage and repairs later.
Enemy plane out of control flew into crane mast. One bomb exploded in hangar space. All radio equipment destroyed. Ship entirely seaworthy.
NYPH, replace radio and effect necessary repairs to hangar space.
Bomb hit aft holing shell. Beached.
Repairs proceeding by own repair force. May not require docking.
1604 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
 Cincpac File No.
UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET
USS PENNSYLVANIA, Flagship
PEARL HARBOR, T. H., December 20, 1941.
(a) Disposition of task forces
TASK FORCE ONE
Batdivs 2 and 4 (less COLORADO) .......... 5 BB
Crudiv 9 (less BOISE) .................... 4 CL
Desrons 1 and 3 (less CLARK) ............. 17 DD
RALEIGH .................................. 1 OCL
OGLALA ................................... 1 OCM
Mindiv 1 (overhaul) ...................... 4 DM
Disposition: In port. Returned 11/28 to remain until 12/13.
TASK FORCE TWO
Batdiv 1 ...................... 3 BB
Crudiv 5 (less PENSACOLA) ...... 3 CA
Desrons 4 and 6 ................ 18 DD
DETROIT ........................ 1 OCL
ENTERPRISE ..................... 1 CV
Mindiv 2 ....................... 4 DM
Disposition: At sea as Task Force EIGHT. In Port.
ENTERPRISE Batdiv 1
Desron 6 Desron 4
Crudiv 5 DETROIT
Position of Task Force EIGHT: 200 miles west of Pearl standing to eastward returning from landing VMP at Wake. Planes were in the air from 0618 to search sector 045 to 135 to 150 miles and then land at Ewa. These planes arrived during the attack and engaged the enemy aircraft.
TASK FORCE THREE
Crudivs 4 and 6 (less LOUISVILLE) ....... 7 CA
Desron 5 (less Desdiv 10) ............... 5 DD
Minron 2 ................................ 13 DM
LEXINGTON ............................... 1 CV
 Disposition: At sea as Task Force TWELVE
Crudiv 4 less INDIANAPOLIS and LOUISVILLE plus ASTORIA
Desron 5 less Desdiv 10
Position (estimated): 23-45 N, 171-15 W, about 425 miles southeast of Midway and 300 miles West of French Frigate Shoal on a westerly course to land Marine VMSB's on Midway. When attack was made the Task Force was ordered to turn toward Pearl and later directed to intercept the enemy and destroy enemy carriers. INDIANAPOLIS as Task Force THREE, Minron 2 less Mindivs 5 and 6 at Johnston exercising at landing exercises using landing boats. MINNEAPOLIS and Mindiv 5 at sea S. W. of Oahu normal operations. Mindiv 6 in port, with NEW ORLEANS and SAN FRANCISCO under overhaul.
TASK FORCE SEVEN
At Midway ................. 2 SS
At Wake ................... 2 SS
At Mare Island ............ 5 SS
At San Diego .............. 4 SS
En route to Pearl ......... 4 SS
At Pearl .................. 5 SS
PELIAS .................... 1 AS
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1605
TASK FORCE NINE
VP-21 At Midway, 7 searching 120-170 450 miles.
4 on 10 minutes notice ..................... 11
VP-11-4 hours notice .......................... 12
VP-12-30 minutes notice ....................... 6
4 hours notice .......................... 5
VP-14 In air (with depth charges) ............. 3
30 minutes notice ....................... 3
4 hours notice .......................... 4
VP-22-4 hours notice .......................... 12
VP-23 4 hours notice .......................... 11
VP-24-4 in air conducting tactics with SS ..... 4
on 30 minutes notice .................... 1
Total ......................................... 72
Overhauling ................................... 9
Total ......................................... 81
 TANGIER In port.
CURTISS In port
All planes on the ground on ready notice had been furnished with a search directive in the event that any contacts with surface forces were developed by the early morning search. This plan never became effective because damage to the planes prevented.
VMF 221 .......................... Wake
VMSB 231 ......................... Enroute Midway LEXINGTON
VMSB 232 Ewa 4 hours notice....... 18
VMJ 252 Ewa ...................... 2
ARGONNE, plus auxiliaries and repair vessels, were in port.
Aircraft of Base Force
VJ-1—— 9 J2F Pearl
9 JRS Pearl
VJ-2——10 J2F Pearl
4 PBY-1 ................... (2 at Johnston)
VJ-3—— 1 J2V ..................... Pearl
4 JRB ..................... At Maui
In addition the tenders (destroyer) DOBBIN and WHITNEY were in port and the submarine tender PELIAS.
The Task Forces shown herein, except EIGHT and TWELVE which were on special missions to improve war readiness of Wake and Midway, were in accordance with the organization of the Pacific Fleet which had been effective since 30 April 1941, and revised on 31 October 1941. The Task Forces were operating in accordance with the approved employment schedule of the Fleet and the special tasks assigned. It will be noted that all combatant vessels were assigned to Task Forces. This assignment was in accordance with their war missions and all training was conducted with that in mind
(b) The Fleet was operating under the "security plan" originally issued on February and revised on 14 October 1941.  This provided for the possibility of a declaration of war being preceded by:
(a) A surprise attack on ships in Pearl Harbor,
(b) A surprise submarine attack on ships in the operating area
(c) A combination of both.
1606 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
The provisions of the security measures were always followed by ships in the operating areas even to the point of having ready ammunition at the guns. Frequent surprise drills were held by ships in Pearl Harbor, in coordination with Army and distant activities to test the provisions of the security measures against air and submarine attacks on ships in port. Since, however, the times in port had to be devoted to upkeep, and limited recreation periods, and since the intelligence information indicated complete security from any surprise air attack, the provisions of the air security plan were not fully effective in port At the time of the attack, however, provisions had been made and were in effect to provide against sabotage on ships, docks and equipment. And all ships had armed patrols and careful routine inspections of the ships during the entire time in port. In the battleships, two machine guns were always manned and ready and two 5"/25 guns were manned with stand-by crews and 16 rounds of ammunition at each gun.
(c) In addition and as provided in the Security Plan, a daily search of all operating areas was conducted by planes of Patrol Wing TWO. This was an early morning search of about 200 miles to cover the general areas in which the Fleet would be operating during the day.
Such a search was being conducted on 7 December and planes on that search were in the air at the time of the attack. In addition, 4 planes were operating with submarines in the training of inter-type exercises for communication and recognition. They searched the area toward Lahaina Roads on that morning.
(d) The first indication of any enemy force in the area was the appearance of a submarine close aboard the ANTARES returning from Canton Island and preparing to enter Honolulu while towing a barge. This submarine was attack by a destroyer of the off-shore patrol which was called by the ANTARES. This was at about 0645. In addition, plane one of VP-14 dropped a bomb on a submarine off the entrance to Pearl. In this connection numerous sonic contacts had been reported in the operating waters close to Pearl during the last six months but no actual visual  contacts had been made. In addition no attacks had been made on these suspected submarines because the Navy Department had prohibited such attacks except within the 3 mile limit. When the international situation grew more tense, however, the Commander-in-Chief directed ships to attack submarines suspected to be operating this area, and it was on this authority that the WARD and VP-14 attacked on the morning of 7 December.
These submarine attacks were followed by a report from the Navy Signal Tower "Enemy air raid, this is not a drill" at about 0752. It will be noted that the attack occurred while the crews of ships were just finishing breakfast on Sunday morning.
The information regarding the air raid was sent to all Task Forces at 0800, followed by a dispatch "Hostilities with Japan commenced with air raid on Pearl" at 0812.
The effect of the surprise attack and the damage inflicted with damage to communications made it practically impossible to organize an air search except by the 7 PBY's in the air at the time.
(e) At 0817 Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet, directed Patrol Wing TWO to search for the enemy, and the PBY's in the air started to search. The 3 on the morning search started to search sector 3100-000 to a distance of 300 miles. The first plane started out at once.
The 4 PBY's operating with the submarines started search sector 245-285 to 300 miles out, the first plane of that search got away at about 0945.
No plane in those areas searched saw anything. At 0830 Commander-in-Chief advised Task Force THREE, EIGHT and TWELVE to rendezvous as directed by Commander Task Force EIGHT and stated that instructions would be issued as soon as enemy was located.
(f) While it appeared logical that the attack should come from the northward so that the planes would fly down wind with their loads, no such evidence was available from the nature of the attack. Certain information indicated that carriers or enemy forces were operating to the southward. A direction finder bearing of radio transmissions at 1046 was received to indicate that an enemy force bore 178 from Pearl. This was not a positive indication of an enemy position but did indicate the probability of an enemy carrier to the southward. A message was received from a ship with the MINNEAPOLIS call at 0950 stating that carrier had been sighted. The MINNEAPOLIS was then south of Oahu. At 1010 4 DM's sent a message that they were in area Sail 2 and that two carriers
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1607
were in sight. This was later corrected to say the message should have been NOT in sight.
 In addition, a message from Kaneohe received at 1000 stated "Captured enemy have marked positions, bearing 223 90 miles from Pearl Harbor." These marks in Japanese script were later found not pertinent to the attack.
This information was passed to Task Forces at sea as an indication of probable location of enemy forces In addition, at 1018 the Task Force Commanders were advised that there were only 12 VP's available in Pearl for search and that there was some indication that the enemy was to the northward. They were directed to locate and attack the enemy of unknown composition. Search was instituted at once by Task Force EIGHT who was then somewhat west by south of Pearl. At 1020, 16 VSB from ENTERPRISE loaded with 1000 lb. bombs were launched to search for and attack a reported group of 4 transports off Barber's Point. The origin of the report about the transports is unknown and it probably was enemy deception because surface craft proceeding to attack them were attacked by enemy submarines in that area. Ships that could so cleared the harbor by this time and were organized as a separate Task Force ONE at 1105 and directed to report to Commander Task Force EIGHT to assist in locating and destroying the enemy.
(g) It was not possible to start an organized search with aircraft with the forces on Oahu until the late morning. By about 1100, however, in addition to the 7 PBY's which had started the search between 0815 and 0915, as the planes became serviceable they were started on the following searches:
3 B-17 095-165, 300 miles
Navy—4 planes VP-24, 245-275, 300 miles
2 planes VJ, 355-005, 300 miles
3 planes VP-14, 295 350, 200 miles
4 planes VP-23, 215-245, 200 miles
Battleship & Cruiser Planes
6 VOS, 135-215, 200 miles
9 SBD, 330-030, 200 miles
6 J2F in westward sector
 The concentrated air search was conducted to the northward and westward because of the belief that the major enemy attack force was in that direction. In addition, the disposition of Task Forces at sea was such that they were able to search to the southward.
At about 1345 one plane of the ENTERPRISE reported contact with surface forces in position 20-32 N and 158-40 W, and followed closely by a report that the patrol was being attacked by a VF plane. This report was apparently in error because the position is only about 60 miles from Pearl.
At 1330 a radio direction finder bearing on an enemy frequency and by a ship using the "AKAGI" call was picked up and gave a bearing of 183 from Pearl and another unidentified unit was found to be on bearing 167 from Pearl. This information was passed to the Task Forces at sea and on that information and the supposition that any enemy forces in the area south of Oahu would retire, toward Jaluit, the senior Task Force Commander at sea directed Task Force TWELVE at 1552, to intercept and destroy the enemy. In addition, Task Force ONE which had joined Task Force EIGHT was directed to proceed to search with surface force and attack. The surface force search was also based on a retirement toward Jaluit.
No contacts were made and the enemy was not located, except that 2 planes from the cruiser NORTHAMPTON made contact with an enemy fighter at 1120 just north of NIIHAU and after 20 minutes in spite of the enemy superior speed and gun power succeeded in shooting him down. No report of this attack ever reached the Commander-in-Chief.
From the chart later discovered from enemy planes, shot down there is no indication that any carriers operated to the southward of Oahu. The charts do indicate, however, that the attack was launched from a point about 200 miles to the northward and that the carrier retired to the northward at full speed while waiting planes to return from the attack. (It appears then that the enemy carriers in his area were well beyond the daylight search curve of the planes sent out to find them and therefore were successful in evading all contacts with our air forces in the area).
1608 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
The search by surface craft carrier aircraft and their ship-based planes to the southward was not successful. It appears probable that the enemy used radio deception by placing a ship to the southward to use deceptive radio calls, to indicate the presence of enemy forces in that area. It may be possible, too, that if enemy forces were in that area that they retired at high speed to the South. Ward beyond the range of our ships and aircraft. 
(h) At 0800 the positions of the ships at sea were approximately as follows:
Task Force TWELVE 18-30 N
Task Force EIGHT 128-50 N
Task Force ONE 20-32 N
Task Force TWELVE was proceeding on course 170 at 17 knots. His position was in the area to the northwestward of Johnston Island. The cruiser planes searched to the northward of the island and the carrier planes in a southeasterly direction to a distance of 200 miles for the 0800 position.
In addition, the planes of VP-21 departed Midway and searched the area from Midway to Johnston and then from Johnston to Pearl Harbor. Six planes of Patwing TWO searched the sector with the median of 220 from Pearl Harbor to a distance of 550 miles. The planes from the ENTERPRISE searched the sector 315 to 270 from the carrier's daylight position.
By these searches practically the entire area in the Oahu-Midway-Johnston Island triangle was completely covered.
In addition, the available planes of Patwing TWO searched an area of 200 miles all around Oahu. It was not possible to extend this search further to seaward because of the small number of available planes.
(i) Because Task Force EIGHT was low in fuel, that Force entered Pearl Harbor after dark on 8 December, fueled, provisioned and took on ammunition and departed for sea before daylight on 9 December.
On 9 December the position of Task Force TWELVE was about 600 miles S. S. W. of Oahu proceeding toward the island. A 200 mile search was being conducted in the morning all around the carrier position during the morning and a 150 mile search along the line of the carrier course during the afternoon.
After departure from Pearl Harbor Task Force EIGHT proceeded to the northeastward from Oahu for search operations in that area.
Task Force ONE returned to port on 9 December.
 Using Oahu based planes the following search was conducted starting in the morning of 9 December:
300-010 500 miles 10 VP
010-060 300 miles 10 B-18
060-210 200 miles 18 VSO
210-030 300 miles 6 VJ
and in the afternoon
330-020 4 Army B-20
The sector to the southwest of Oahu was covered by the LEXINGTON planes as mentioned before.
No contact with enemy or surface forces were made. Numerous submarines were reported, probably many false contacts, but all were attacked by planes.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1609
EXHIBIT NO 40. (NAVY PACKET NO. 2) ROBERTS COMMISSION
Cincpac File NO.
UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET
U.S. S. PENNSYLVANIA, Flagship
Location of regularly assigned commanding officers of ships present during Japanese attack of 7 December 1941
Name of ship
Captain on board
Name of captain
No (enroute to ship)
F. W. Scanland
M. S. Bennion.
D. C. Godwin.
No(enroute to ship)
J. W. Bunkley.
No(enroute to ship)
C. E. Reordan.
C. M. Cooke, Jr.
H. D. Bode.
M. B. PH
MB NAS PH
Depot Supplies PH
N. A. Depot
66th Defense Bn
D. J. Callaghan.
R. H. English.
R. B. Simons.
G. A. Rood.
R. F. Stout.
D. F. J. Shea.
No (enroute to ship)
R. H. Smith.
No (enroute to ship)
H. N. Williams.
No (enroute to ship)
F. R. Walker.
A. J. Detzler
No (enroute to ship)
G. A. Sinclair.
Ralph Earle Jr.
No (enroute to ship)
J. R. Topper.
H. F. Pullen.
E. W. Young.
C. E. Carroll.
H. J. Wright.
J. M. Lane.
No (enroute to ship)
W. R. Thayer.
H. C. Daniels.
W P. Burford.
J. L. Wilfong.
No (aboard TREVOR)
R. H. Smith.
W. F. Kline.
1610 CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
Location of regularly assigned commanding officers of ships present during Japanese attack of 7 December 1941-Continued.
Name of ship
Captain on board
Name of captain
No (enroute to ship)
J. H. Willingham Jr.
No(enroute to ship)
C. W. Wilkins.
No(enroute to ship)
G. B. Rainer
W. N. Christensen.
J. A. Flenniken.
A. E Schrader.
L. C. Grannis.
No (enroute to ship)
No (enroute to ship)
E. P. Speight.
D. Curry, Jr.
J. S. Phillips.
N. M. Pigman.
H. E. Paddock.
No (enroute to ship)
W. C. Johnson, Jr.
SWAN (Under repairs)
F. E. Hall.
I. W. Truitt.
No (on authorized shore leave)
J. M. Steele.
No (enroute to ship)
H. S. Kendall.
PROCEEDINGS OF ROBERTS COMMISSION 1611
Location of regularly assigned commanding officers of ships present during Japanese attack of 7 December 1941-Continued.
J. L. Foley.
F. J. Ilsemann.
No (enroute to ship)
T. F. Fowler.
W. B. Pendleton.
OCEAN GOING TUG
F. C. Mayer.
H. J. Wright.
SEAPLANE TENDER (DESTROYER)
J. M. Lane.
No (enroute to ship)
W. F. Kline.
MOTOR TORPEDO BOAT SQUADRON
MTB SQUADRON ONE
No (enroute to boats)
W. C. Specht.
LIGHT MINE LAYERS
TRACY (undergoing overhaul)
No (enroute to ship)
G. R. Phelan.
PRUITT (undergoing overhaul)
No (enroute to ship)
E. W. Herron.
G. C. Simms.
D. M. Agnew.
R. A. Guthrie.
D. A. Crandell.
L. M. LeHardy.
H. F. Stout.
H. D. Johnston.
SICARD (undergoing overhaul)
No (enroute to ship)
W. C. Schultz.
The following Flag and Commanding Officers were killed in action on 7 December 1941 at Pearl Harbor:
USS ARIZONA: Rear Admiral Isaac C. KIDD, USN Dead.
Captain Franklin Van Valkenburgh, USN Missing
USS WEST VIRGINIA: Captain Mervyn S. BENNION, USN Dead.
Spying On the U.S. Naval Fleet
As early as the 1920s, the Japanese had been working along the Californian coast and
the Gulf of Mexico. The fact that many Japanese immigrants had settled in California and Mexico made it easier for the Japanese undercover agents. The most effective covers for Japanese agents were the occupations of fishermen and barbers. The technique was to teach the Mexicans to fish scientifically and arrangement were made with the government of Mexico to allow Japanese fishermen to fish on the Mexican coast. One of the tasks set by the Japanese Naval Intelligence was to keep a watch on the US fleet when it was conducting maneuvers off of Southern California.
The Panama Canal was also another prime target for Japanese espionage. There in Panama City, were forty-seven Japanese barbers in the mid-thirties -- all linked to an attractive Japanese girl named Chiyo Morasawa who operated a clothes shop. She regularly collected all the tit-bits of barbers' gossip and, together with photographs of military installations, passed them over to her husband who was a Japanese Navy officer.
Another famous spy network operating in Hawaii was under a Japanese named Commander Itaru Tachibana. Earlier, in 1930, Tachibana had entered the United States and enrolled as a language student at the University of Pennsylvania, but later switched to the University of Southern California and from there worked in a spy network. However, he was arrested by the FBI while trying to recruit ex-navy officers to spy for him in Hawaii.
"Bail of 50,000 dollars was demanded before [Tachibana]
could be released. The Japanese Consul in Los
Angeles immediately produced this money to get
Tachibana free and he was speedily 'sprung' from
captivity" (ibid., p. 183).
Tachibana's work was carried by a Takeo Yoshikawa who was transferred from the
Japanese Navy to the Foreign Office. In August, 1941, he was sent to Honolulu under
the cover name of vice-consul Ito Morimura. Though not a professional spy he was
nevertheless adaptable, versatile, imaginative and effective. He frequented the Shuncho-ro Restaurant which had an excellent view of the harbor. To be more clandestine, the Japanese spy network also used a German named Dr. Keuhn, whose attractive and gregarious daughter Ruth played her full part by making friends with American naval officers at parties and tennis courts. Ruth started a beauty parlor and learned a great deal by listening to the gossip of her clients, mainly U.S. officers' wives. Yoshikawa had an eye for detail and a mass of information was collected, including names, numbers and technical idiosyncrasies of ship movements and transmitted to the Hawaiian Japanese consul. Although American Intelligence officers were aware that the U.S. Naval fleet was being watched by the Japanese, they were skeptical that Japan had any heinous design for Hawaii. Further, Japanese counter intelligence was very effective in confusing American intelligence by getting all sorts of naval information from every Japanese embassy and consulate around the world -- ranging from Stockholm to Cape Town, and from Geneva to Naples as well as that from Hawaii.
A key question which the Navy Intelligence in Tokyo put to Yoshikawa was on which day of the week were there the most ships in Pearl Harbor. Sunday was his answer as Admiral Husband Kimmel invariably brought his fleet into Pearl for the weekend.
On December 5, 1941, Yoshikawa was still passing messages to Tokyo, indicating the
arrivals and departures of battles ships and all the minutes were speedily relayed by the Foreign Ministry to Naval Intelligence in Tokyo. When the Pacific war started on December 7, Yoshikawa managed to burn all his code books and any compromising material in his hands before he was interned by the Americans, Dr. Keuhn and Ruth were arrested and so too was Mrs. Keuhn. Though the initial sentences were harsh, all three were later released after the war.
The Pearl Harbor Spy Provided Valuable Intelligence
to Japanese War Planners Prior to the Surprise Attack
By Wil Deac
On March 27, 1941, the Japanese liner Nitta Maru nuzzled against Pier 8 near Honolulu's famous Aloha Tower on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. One of the disembarking passengers--a slim, 29-year-old man of medium height, his longish, black hair combed back--received a lei greeting from an official of the Japanese Consulate. Vice Consul Otojiro Okuda guided the young man, whose papers identified him as Tadashi Morimura, through customs and drove him to the two-story consulate on Nuuana Avenue.
There, Morimura chatted with Consul General Nagao Kita, was introduced to his co-workers and settled into a cottage in the consular compound. He was given the title of chancellor, which only Kita and Okuda knew would not be his real job.
In reality, the newcomer was Takeo Yoshikawa, a naval reserve ensign. Son of a policeman and a 1933 honor graduate of the Imperial Japanese Naval College, he briefly served aboard a battleship, then underwent submarine and pilot training.
His promising career was truncated by a major stomach ailment. Retired after only two years, Yoshikawa was contemplating suicide when the navy offered him a job with its general staff's intelligence division. For the next four years, the young man studied English and pored over everything available on the U.S. Navy and its Pacific Ocean bases. He was told late in 1940 that he was being posted to the American territory of Hawaii. There, posing as junior diplomat Morimura, he was to keep current on the status of the U.S. fleet and its anchorages, reporting his observations to Tokyo by coded telegraph messages. The assignment fit into a plan outlined in January 1941 by Combined Fleet Commander Isoroku Yamamoto. The plan called for an aerial assault on Hawaii as the opening move of a war that seemed inevitable as tensions rose between the United States and Japan. Yoshikawa was to become his country's only military spy in the islands and Yamamoto's most valuable source of current information on Oahu.
Yoshikawa began by familiarizing himself with the principal Hawaiian islands and their military installations, which were concentrated on Oahu. To explore the latter, he frequently relied on a hired cab driven by John Mikami, a Japanese-Hawaiian who often performed chores for the consulate. Other times, the spy used a 1937 Ford chauffeured by Richard Kotoshirodo, a nisei consular clerk. It did not take long for Yoshikawa to scout out the various U.S. Army and Navy bases on central, southern and eastern Oahu. Predictably, the focus of his attention was Pearl Harbor, the nearly landlocked U.S. Pacific Fleet anchorage on the south coast of the island.
When Consul General Kita introduced Yoshikawa to a Japanese-style teahouse in the mountainside Alewa Heights section, just north of downtown Honolulu, the affable intelligence officer knew it would be his favorite operational site. Not only was the teahouse strategically situated but it also fit his penchant for hard drinking and pursuing women.
The Shuncho ro (Spring Tide Restaurant) on Makanani Drive was run by a cooperative woman, a native of his own Shikoku Island, and was staffed by genial geishas. Its intelligence value lay in the view from the second floor. From the front windows, Yoshi-kawa could see Ford Island in the center of Pearl Harbor, only six miles to the west. Just to the left, adjacent to the naval installation, lay the army's Hickam Field. The teahouse conveniently had a telescope or two that enhanced the view.
Yoshikawa wisely did not overuse any one observation post or method as he spied on activities in Pearl Harbor and Hickam airfield. Sometimes, dressed as a laborer, he took a minibus to the cane fields at Aiea to the north of the two bases. From other nearby slopes, he could look down at the submarine facilities in the harbor's Southeast Loch. A pier at Pearl City to the northwest enabled the Japanese operative to view the far side of Ford Island and its airstrip. A close look at the harbor entrance, which might be guarded by anti-submarine nets, eluded him because both sides of the entrance were restricted areas. Without telling them what he was doing with their input, although they surely knew, he used one or more of the consulate's personnel to complement his intelligence gathering.
In keeping with his cover, Yoshikawa avoided illegally entering military bases or stealing classified documents. He shunned cameras and notepads, relying instead on memory. Given American openness, he and his helpers got virtually all the information they needed by legal, though stealthy, means. He supplemented his observations with items of interest gleaned from daily newspapers. Furthermore, U.S. counterintelligence agencies were hampered by laws that prohibited them from probing deeply into the consulate's communications. It was not surprising, therefore, that the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the military intelligence organizations followed leads that led elsewhere.
For example, Captain Irving Mayfield, chief of the naval district intelligence offices, believed that the consulate, despite its presumed involvement in espionage, was not "an important part of the [Japanese spy] net." Telephone taps had provided little of value, since the consular staff assumed that the Americans were eavesdropping. Other factors that hamstrung counterintelligence operations were an American fear of alarming the population and ongoing efforts to secure the loyalty of local ethnic Japanese.
Following a time-consuming process, Yoshikawa gradually recorded the island's patterns of military activity. Since the battleships were moored in double rows along Ford Island's southeast side, torpedoes could be used only against the outboard ones. Most vessels were in port every weekend. Air patrols neglected the northern side of Oahu. These and other observations were written up, encoded and transmitted to Tokyo using, in turn, all the cable companies in Honolulu.
By mid-1941, although his information was not always accurate, Yoshikawa had given the Japanese navy invaluable information for its upcoming surprise attack. He knew the individual American warships by name and whether or not they were in port on a specific day. He also eliminated other sites as potential targets, enabling Yamamoto's planners to focus on Pearl Harbor.
"Your concern over the old whaling port of Lahaina as a possible U.S. anchorage is groundless," the spy reported after a trip to Maui Island, to the southeast. After a glass-bottomed tourist-boat outing with two women co-workers, he described Kaneohe Bay on the windward side of Oahu's Koolau Mountains as too shallow for major fleet units.
American reaction to the growing Axis threat began to give the Honolulu consulate anxious moments, as U.S. authorities clamped down on spies both on the mainland and in Hawaii. Local papers announced that the Honolulu police had established an "espionage bureau" at the request of the FBI. Less constrained than its military counterparts, the FBI also was intensifying its own look at the consulate's 234 employees.
President Franklin Roosevelt froze Japanese assets in the United States, closed American ports to Japanese ships and embargoed the sale of petroleum products to Japan. When German and Italian consulates were closed, there was concern that Japanese consulates might be next. That would have dealt a major blow to Yamamoto's Pearl Harbor planning.
By September, Japan's intelligence gatherers had a largely complete general picture of their Oahu targets. What they now needed were constantly updated data pinpointing warship locations, aircraft strength and the like. On September 24, Tokyo's "strictly secret" message No. 83 was received at the Honolulu consulate. It requested ship locations keyed to the five geographical zones into which Japanese naval intelligence had divided the waters of Pearl Harbor.
Washington codebreakers had this revealing request, known as the "bomb plot message," translated within 15 days of its interception.The message was deemed noncritical by the U.S. powers-that-be, however, and was therefore not relayed to military commanders in Hawaii. Yoshikawa and his colleagues, on the other hand, now could have little doubt that their work was feeding plans to attack Pearl Harbor. The consulate's response to the bomb plot message offered suggestions that would refine Tokyo's request and more precisely locate individual targets. This message, too, was intercepted by the Americans--and shrugged off. By this time, Washington was downplaying Japanese subversion in the interests of ongoing diplomatic talks with Tokyo.
Yoshikawa pursued his mission with unrelenting vigor. He used numerous cover ploys to scout places that soon would gain international attention--Pearl Harbor, Hickam, Wheeler, Bellows, Kaneohe and Ewa airfields, Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter.
In October, he met the man Tokyo had selected to be his successor once the outbreak of war shuttered the consulate. Bernard Julius Otto Kuehn was a Nazi who had moved with his family to Hawaii in 1936 under contract to the Japanese. He was a "sleeper," a long-term agent to be activated when needed. Kuehn was anything but an effective agent--in fact, U.S. counterintelligence already had him on its suspect list--but he was the only one available to fill in at a time when Asian faces might be unwelcome in Hawaii. The letter and package Yoshikawa gave Kuehn contained, respectively, an operational message and $14,000 in working funds. Kuehn's vacation at Axis expense was over in more ways than one; he was arrested shortly after the Japanese attack.
In late October, the liner Taiyo Maru left Yokohama for Honolulu in a limited relaxation of the shipping freeze. Aboard were three Japanese naval officers ordered to make observations along the route laid out for the attack force, verify the consulate's information, and obtain new data. Although other personnel maintained a brisk traffic between the consulate and the trio on the docked liner during a five-day period, Yoshikawa kept away for security reasons.
Nevertheless, the brunt of the new information requirements fell on his shoulders. He worked nearly around the clock to prepare responses, which included maps covering various aspects of Oahu's military dispositions. Despite close U.S. surveillance measures that kept them aboard ship, the visiting officers returned home satisfied that they had successfully completed their mission.
See the USS Lanikai; FDR's own secret mission to track the Japanese
The intelligence-collecting pace paralleled the increased tension that came with a November 5 Tokyo imperial conference decision to "prepare a surprise attack" on Pearl Harbor for Sunday, December 7, Oahu time. Throughout the month, requests for updated information and replies flashed between Japan and Hawaii. While Yoshikawa and his helpers raced around Oahu, the Kido Butai, Japan's attack force, assembled and steamed eastward into the North Pacific. Soon, Yoshikawa was sending biweekly "ships in harbor" reports to Japan for relay to the approaching task force. Late in the month, the consulate was ordered to destroy its high-level codes and all accumulated secret papers. On December 1, with Emperor Hirohito present, the Japanese Privy Council officially authorized the Pearl Harbor action. The next day, Tokyo flashed a green light to the Kido Butai to proceed with the attack.
On December 5, Yoshikawa asked cabbie Mikami to drive him west along a road that has since been replaced by the Moanalua Freeway to a point north of Pearl Harbor. From there, he watched the last of the Pacific Fleet's three aircraft carriers put to sea with her escort of cruisers and destroyers. While the departure of USS Lexington came too late to affect Japan's war plans, the absence of the carriers on December 7 was to have a decisive effect on America's ability to eventually wrest the offensive from Japan. Yoshikawa was asked if the moored U.S. ships were protected by anti-aircraft balloons and anti-torpedo nets. His negative report on these contained a direct reference to "a surprise attack," a slip that was caught by American codebreakers, but not translated until the day after the air raid.
At midafternoon on December 6, Yoshikawa climbed into Mikami's taxi for what turned out to be his final reconnaissance of Pearl Harbor from the Pearl City pier. Back at the consulate, he coordinated his report with Kita, then saw that the encoded message went to the RCA communications office for transmittal to Tokyo. The Japanese foreign ministry received it shortly afterward and passed it to the navy general staff for forwarding to the attack force. According to Yoshikawa's reporting, supplemented by coded transpacific telephone conversations with at least one other operative, everything seemed favorable for Sunday's mission. Late that Saturday, Oahu time, the latest target information was in the hands of the Kido Butai, now churning due south toward Oahu.
The Japanese consular personnel, not having been forewarned by Tokyo, nervously gathered together as the noise of the surprise raid reached them that fateful Sunday, December 7. Kita and Okuda were dressed for a golfing date. Yoshikawa had been in his cottage. An enterprising Honolulu journalist visiting the consulate for comments provided the first confirmation of what was happening. At midday, local policemen drove past posted guards into the driveway at the rear of the consulate and took over the building. They interrupted a last-minute burning of documents. Shortly afterward, Mikami pulled up in his taxi and asked a policeman to inform the consul general and vice consul that he had arrived to drive them to the golf course. Mikami was told that his fares would not be coming out to play that day.
Yoshikawa and his colleagues remained inside their workplace for more than a week. Driven to a Coast Guard vessel, they were then transported to San Diego. In March 1942, they were placed in an Arizona camp holding numerous interned nisei. Yoshikawa later described this experience as "a cruel joke. You see, I couldn't trust them [Japanese-Americans] in Hawaii to help us. They were loyal to the United States." The spy and his companions ultimately were exchanged for American diplomats being held in Japan. During his internment, no outsider learned Yoshikawa's true identity.
Back in his homeland, Yoshikawa married and continued working for naval intelligence until the end of the war. Fearful of arrest when U.S. troops occupied Japan in 1945, he fled into the countryside and posed as a Buddhist monk. He returned to his wife and two children after the occupation, not telling his story to an American audience until 1960. He was a bitter man, unable to earn a living and forced to rely on his wife's insurance sales for subsistence. His government gave him neither honors nor pension. The aging Pearl Harbor spy was left to ask, "Why has history cheated me?"